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Evaluating the Pressure and Loss Behavior in Water Pipes Using Smart Mathematical Modelling

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Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja 86400, Johor, Malaysia
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Division of Bioprocess, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor 11800, Pinang, Malaysia
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School of Computing, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru 81310, Johor, Malaysia
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School of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Johor, Malaysia
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Centre for Environmental Sustainability and Water Security (IPASA), Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Johor, Malaysia
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Biology Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Jl. Airlangga No. 4–6, Airlangga, Kec. Gubeng, Kota Surabaya 60115, Jawa Timur, Indonesia
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Departement of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Armando Di Nardo and Vicenç Puig
Water 2021, 13(24), 3500; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243500
Received: 26 August 2021 / Revised: 9 November 2021 / Accepted: 28 November 2021 / Published: 8 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Due to the constant need to enhance water supply sources, water operators are searching for solutions to maintain water quality through leakage protection. The capability to monitor the day-to-day water supply management is one of the most significant operational challenges for water companies. These companies are looking for ways to predict how to improve their supply operations in order to remain competitive, given the rising demand. This work focuses on the mathematical modeling of water flow and losses through leak openings in the smart pipe system. The research introduces smart mathematical models that water companies may use to predict water flow, losses, and performance, thereby allowing issues and challenges to be effectively managed. So far, most of the modeling work in water operations has been based on empirical data rather than mathematically described process relationships, which is addressed in this study. Moreover, partial submersion had a power relationship, but a total immersion was more likely to have a linear power relationship. It was discovered in the experiment that the laminar flows had Reynolds numbers smaller than 2000. However, when testing with transitional flows, Reynolds numbers were in the range of 2000 to 4000. Furthermore, tests with turbulent flow revealed that the Reynolds number was more than 4000. Consequently, the main loss in a 30 mm diameter pipe was 0.25 m, whereas it was 0.01 m in a 20 mm diameter pipe. However, the fitting pipe had a minor loss of 0.005 m, whereas the bending pipe had a loss of 0.015 m. Consequently, mathematical models are required to describe, forecast, and regulate the complex relationships between water flow and losses, which is a concept that water supply companies are familiar with. Therefore, these models can assist in designing and operating water processes, allowing for improved day-to-day performance management. View Full-Text
Keywords: mathematical modeling; water distribution; water losses; smart water management mathematical modeling; water distribution; water losses; smart water management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Altowayti, W.A.H.; Othman, N.; Tajarudin, H.A.; Al-Dhaqm, A.; Asharuddin, S.M.; Al-Gheethi, A.; Alshalif, A.F.; Salem, A.A.; Din, M.F.M.; Fitriani, N.; AL-Towayti, F.A.H. Evaluating the Pressure and Loss Behavior in Water Pipes Using Smart Mathematical Modelling. Water 2021, 13, 3500. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243500

AMA Style

Altowayti WAH, Othman N, Tajarudin HA, Al-Dhaqm A, Asharuddin SM, Al-Gheethi A, Alshalif AF, Salem AA, Din MFM, Fitriani N, AL-Towayti FAH. Evaluating the Pressure and Loss Behavior in Water Pipes Using Smart Mathematical Modelling. Water. 2021; 13(24):3500. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243500

Chicago/Turabian Style

Altowayti, Wahid A.H., Norzila Othman, Husnul A. Tajarudin, Arafat Al-Dhaqm, Syazwani M. Asharuddin, Adel Al-Gheethi, Abdullah F. Alshalif, Ali A. Salem, Mohd F.M. Din, Nurina Fitriani, and Faris A.H. AL-Towayti. 2021. "Evaluating the Pressure and Loss Behavior in Water Pipes Using Smart Mathematical Modelling" Water 13, no. 24: 3500. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243500

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