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Article

Tracking the Origin and Evolution of Diagenetic Fluids of Upper Jurassic Carbonate Rocks in the Zagros Thrust Fold Belt, NE-Iraq

1
Engineering Faculty, Petroleum Engineering Department, Soran University, Soran-Erbil 44008, Iraq
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Scientific Research Centre (SRC), Soran University, Soran-Erbil 44008, Iraq
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Res. Grp.—Biogeochemistry & Modelling of the Earth System, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
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Institute for Geosciences, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3, Canada
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Géosciences, CNRS, Rennes University, 35000 Rennes, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Domenico Cicchella
Water 2021, 13(22), 3284; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223284
Received: 18 October 2021 / Revised: 4 November 2021 / Accepted: 12 November 2021 / Published: 19 November 2021
Utilizing sophisticated tools in carbonate rocks is crucial to interpretating the origin and evolution of diagenetic fluids from the Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks along the Zagros thrust-fold Belt. The origin and evolution of the paleofluids utilizing in-situ strontium isotope ratios by high resolution laser ablation ICP-MS, integrated with stable isotopes, petrography and fieldwork are constrained. Due to the lack of information on the origin of the chemistry of the fluids, the cements that filled the Jurassic carbonate rocks were analysed from the fractures and pores. This allowed us to trace the origin of fluids along a diagenetic sequence, which is defined at the beginning from the sediment deposition (pristine facies). Based on petrography and geochemistry (oxygen-, carbon- and strontium-isotope compositions) two major diagenetic stages involving the fluids were identified. The initial stage, characterized by negative δ13CVPDB values (reaching −10.67‰), involved evaporated seawater deposited with the sediments, mixed with the input of freshwater. The second stage involved a mixture of meteoric water and hot fluids that precipitated as late diagenetic cements. The late diagenetic cements have higher depleted O–C isotope compositions compared to seawater. The diagenetic cements display a positive covariance and were associated with extra- δ13CVPDB and δ18OVPDB values (−12.87‰ to −0.82‰ for δ18OVPDB and −11.66‰ to −1.40‰ for δ13CVPDB respectively). The distinction between seawater and the secondary fluids is also evident in the 87Sr/86Sr of the host limestone versus cements. The limestones have 87Sr/86Sr up to 0.72859, indicative of riverine input, while the cements have 87Sr/86Sr of (0.70772), indicative of hot fluid circulation interacting with meteoric water during late diagenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: origin of diagenetic fluids; strontium isotope-laser ablation ICP-MS; upper jurassic carbonate rocks; ZTFB; NE-Iraq origin of diagenetic fluids; strontium isotope-laser ablation ICP-MS; upper jurassic carbonate rocks; ZTFB; NE-Iraq
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salih, N.; Préat, A.; Gerdes, A.; Konhauser, K.; Proust, J.-N. Tracking the Origin and Evolution of Diagenetic Fluids of Upper Jurassic Carbonate Rocks in the Zagros Thrust Fold Belt, NE-Iraq. Water 2021, 13, 3284. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223284

AMA Style

Salih N, Préat A, Gerdes A, Konhauser K, Proust J-N. Tracking the Origin and Evolution of Diagenetic Fluids of Upper Jurassic Carbonate Rocks in the Zagros Thrust Fold Belt, NE-Iraq. Water. 2021; 13(22):3284. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223284

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salih, Namam, Alain Préat, Axel Gerdes, Kurt Konhauser, and Jean-Noël Proust. 2021. "Tracking the Origin and Evolution of Diagenetic Fluids of Upper Jurassic Carbonate Rocks in the Zagros Thrust Fold Belt, NE-Iraq" Water 13, no. 22: 3284. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223284

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