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Article

Effects of Imazapyr on Spartina alterniflora and Soil Bacterial Communities in a Mangrove Wetland

1
College of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Beijing Top Green Ecological Technology Limited Company, Beijing 100005, China
3
Management and Service Center of Huangshui National Wetland Park, Xining 810008, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Junhong Bai
Water 2021, 13(22), 3277; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223277
Received: 16 October 2021 / Revised: 11 November 2021 / Accepted: 15 November 2021 / Published: 19 November 2021
The invasion of Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) has caused serious damage to coastal wetland ecosystems in China, especially the mangrove wetlands in South China. This study aimed to validate the effect of imazapyr on S. alterniflora and soil. The controlled experiment was conducted in May 2021 at the Zhangjiangkou Mangrove Wetland Reserve. In the experiment, 25% (W) imazapyr was used, and six treatments were set up: 3035, 6070, and 9105 mL/acre 25% imazapyr and 1299, 2604, and 5202 mL/acre of AGE 809 + 6070 mL/acre 25% imazapyr. The results showed no side effects on mangrove plants in the spraying area. The highest control efficiency (95.9%) was given by 2604 mL/acre of AGE 809 + 6070 mL/acre 25% imazapyr. The residues of imazapyr in different soils were reduced to 0.10–0.59 mg/kg. The sequencing results showed no significant difference in the overall bacterial communities under different treatments (p > 0.05). The soil bacterial diversity in the samples with adjuvant was higher than that in the samples without adjuvant, while the abundance values were the opposite. There were 10 main communities (>0.3%) at phylum level in all soil samples, among which Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Chloflexi, and Actinobacteria were the dominant communities, and the latter four’s abundance changed significantly (p < 0.05). There were significant abundance differences between the groups of oligotrophic and eutrophic bacteria. The redundancy analysis and Monte Carlo tests showed that the total organic carbon (TOC), total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP), ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were the main factors affecting soil bacterial diversity. At the same time, TOC, AP, and TP were the most critical factors affecting the overall characteristics of soil bacterial communities in different treatments, while soil residues had no significant effect on bacteria. This might be due to the addition and degradation of imazapyr and the coverage of S. alterniflora. The best recommendation is 2604 mL/acre of AGE 809 + 6070 mL/acre 25% imazapyr to be applied in China’s mangrove wetland reserves and coastal wetlands. View Full-Text
Keywords: imazapyr; mangrove wetland; soil bacterial diversity and community structure; soil physicochemical properties; Spartina alterniflora imazapyr; mangrove wetland; soil bacterial diversity and community structure; soil physicochemical properties; Spartina alterniflora
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mo, X.; Dong, P.; Xie, L.; Xiu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, B.; Liu, J.; Song, X.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Z. Effects of Imazapyr on Spartina alterniflora and Soil Bacterial Communities in a Mangrove Wetland. Water 2021, 13, 3277. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223277

AMA Style

Mo X, Dong P, Xie L, Xiu Y, Wang Y, Wu B, Liu J, Song X, Zhang M, Zhang Z. Effects of Imazapyr on Spartina alterniflora and Soil Bacterial Communities in a Mangrove Wetland. Water. 2021; 13(22):3277. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223277

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mo, Xue, Panpan Dong, Lumeng Xie, Yujiao Xiu, Yanqi Wang, Bo Wu, Jiakai Liu, Xiuhua Song, Mingxiang Zhang, and Zhenming Zhang. 2021. "Effects of Imazapyr on Spartina alterniflora and Soil Bacterial Communities in a Mangrove Wetland" Water 13, no. 22: 3277. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223277

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