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Concept Paper

A Hybrid Model for Achieving Universal Safe Drinking Water in the Medium-Sized City of Bangangté (Cameroon)

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Faculty of Art, Letter and Social Sciences, University of Maroua, Maroua P.O. Box 644, Cameroon
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Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé P.O. Box 812, Cameroon
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Laboratory of Microbiology, Université des Montagnes, Bangangté P.O. Box 208, Cameroon
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Biosystems and Environmental Engineering Research Group, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems, Engineering, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare P.O. Box MP167, Zimbabwe
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Centre for Modern Indian Studies (CeMIS), University of Göttingen, Waldweg 26, D-37073 Göttingen, Germany
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Department of Water Environmental Science and Engineering (WESE), School of Material Energy Water and Environmental Science (MEWES), The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha P.O. Box 447, Tanzania
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Faculty of Health Sciences, Campus of Banekane, Université des Montagnes, Bangangté P.O. Box 208, Cameroon
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Department of Applied Geology, University of Göttingen, Goldschmidtstraße 3, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Günter Langergraber
Water 2021, 13(22), 3177; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223177
Received: 8 October 2021 / Revised: 3 November 2021 / Accepted: 6 November 2021 / Published: 10 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Providing everyone with safe drinking water is a moral imperative. Yet, sub-Saharan Africa seems unable to achieve “safe drinking water for all” by 2030. This sad situation calls for a closer examination of the water supply options for both rural and urban populations. Commonly, two main aspects are considered: (1) behavioural responses to available or potential water supply options, and (2) socio-economic acceptability. These aspects determine the feasibility and the affordability of bringing safe drinking water as a basic good and human right to everyone. There is a broad consensus that achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 is mostly a financial issue, especially in low-income settings. This communication challenges this view as water is available everywhere and affordable treatment options are well-known. It considers the decentralized water supply model as a reference or standard approach in low-income settings rather than as an alternative. Here, the medium-sized city of Bangangté in the western region of Cameroon is used to demonstrate that universal safe drinking water will soon be possible. In fact, during the colonial period, the residences of the elite and the main institutions, including the administrative quarter, churches, and hospital, have been supplied with clean water from various local sources. All that is needed is to consider everyone as important or accept safe drinking water as human right. First, we present a historical background on water supply in the colonial period up to 1980. Second, the drinking water supply systems and water demand driven by population growth are discussed. Finally, a hybrid model for the achieving of universal access to clean drinking water, and preconditions for its successful implementation, are presented. Overall, this communication calls for a shift from safe drinking water supply approaches dominated by centralized systems, and presents a transferable hybrid model to achieve universal clean drinking water. View Full-Text
Keywords: decentralized water supply; hygiene and sanitation; Sub-Saharan Africa; waterborne disease; zero-valent iron decentralized water supply; hygiene and sanitation; Sub-Saharan Africa; waterborne disease; zero-valent iron
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nya, E.L.; Feumba, R.; Fotsing Kwetché, P.R.; Gwenzi, W.; Noubactep, C. A Hybrid Model for Achieving Universal Safe Drinking Water in the Medium-Sized City of Bangangté (Cameroon). Water 2021, 13, 3177. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223177

AMA Style

Nya EL, Feumba R, Fotsing Kwetché PR, Gwenzi W, Noubactep C. A Hybrid Model for Achieving Universal Safe Drinking Water in the Medium-Sized City of Bangangté (Cameroon). Water. 2021; 13(22):3177. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223177

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nya, Esther L., Roger Feumba, Pierre R. Fotsing Kwetché, Willis Gwenzi, and Chicgoua Noubactep. 2021. "A Hybrid Model for Achieving Universal Safe Drinking Water in the Medium-Sized City of Bangangté (Cameroon)" Water 13, no. 22: 3177. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223177

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