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Hydrodynamics, Hydrochemistry, and Stable Isotope Geochemistry to Assess Temporal Behavior of Seawater Intrusion in the La Yarada Aquifer in the Vicinity of Atacama Desert, Tacna, Peru

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Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Nacional Jorge Basadre Grohmann, Tacna 23000, Peru
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Geociencia, Universidad Politécnica de Nochixtlán “Abraham Castellanos”, Oaxaca 69600, Mexico
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Departamento de Geologia-Geotecnia, Universidad Nacional Jorge Basadre Grohmann, Tacna 23000, Peru
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Departamento de Recursos Hídricos, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima 15012, Peru
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Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Monterey, Monterrey 64849, Mexico
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Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Puebla, Puebla 72453, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frédéric Huneau
Water 2021, 13(22), 3161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223161
Received: 31 July 2021 / Revised: 29 October 2021 / Accepted: 2 November 2021 / Published: 9 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
The La Yarada aquifer is the primary water resource for municipal, irrigation, and industrial uses in the semi-arid Tacna, Peru. Presently, over-pumping has caused severe groundwater management problems, including the abandonment of saline water wells. This study presents multivariate analysis and chemical–isotopic trends in water to investigate seawater intrusion and hydrogeological processes affecting water quality. The chemical and isotopic analysis of water samples, collected in two campaigns in the dry (August 2020) and wet (November 2020) seasons, together with the 1988 data, were evaluated with a mixing model, cluster, and factor analysis. The hydrochemical and isotopic mixing model suggested the formation of a wedge with 20% seawater intrusion. The heterogeneity of piezometric map isolines corroborates the wedge formation associated with the groundwater movement. The spatial distributions of factors, FA1 and FA2, suggest two processes of seawater front movement: dispersion (diffusion) of chemical elements and different types of water mixing, respectively. At the edge of the La Yarada aquifer, the water head was relatively low, permitting seawater and freshwater mixing. On the other hand, along the sea-land boundary, the water head of the La Yarada aquifer was relatively high, avoiding seawater and freshwater mixing; however, the chemical species were migrating from the seawater to the groundwater due to the diffusion processes. The cluster 4 samples are in the region corresponding to the isotopic mixing process represented by the FA2, while cluster 4 describes the chemical diffusion process represented by the FA2. Thus, the integrated approach is helpful to assess the seawater intrusion mechanisms in coastal aquifers in a semi-arid region. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal aquifer; seawater intrusion; salinization; isotopic signature coastal aquifer; seawater intrusion; salinization; isotopic signature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vera, A.; Pino-Vargas, E.; Verma, M.P.; Chucuya, S.; Chávarri, E.; Canales, M.; Torres-Martínez, J.A.; Mora, A.; Mahlknecht, J. Hydrodynamics, Hydrochemistry, and Stable Isotope Geochemistry to Assess Temporal Behavior of Seawater Intrusion in the La Yarada Aquifer in the Vicinity of Atacama Desert, Tacna, Peru. Water 2021, 13, 3161. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223161

AMA Style

Vera A, Pino-Vargas E, Verma MP, Chucuya S, Chávarri E, Canales M, Torres-Martínez JA, Mora A, Mahlknecht J. Hydrodynamics, Hydrochemistry, and Stable Isotope Geochemistry to Assess Temporal Behavior of Seawater Intrusion in the La Yarada Aquifer in the Vicinity of Atacama Desert, Tacna, Peru. Water. 2021; 13(22):3161. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vera, Alissa, Edwin Pino-Vargas, Mahendra P. Verma, Samuel Chucuya, Eduardo Chávarri, Miguel Canales, Juan A. Torres-Martínez, Abrahan Mora, and Jürgen Mahlknecht. 2021. "Hydrodynamics, Hydrochemistry, and Stable Isotope Geochemistry to Assess Temporal Behavior of Seawater Intrusion in the La Yarada Aquifer in the Vicinity of Atacama Desert, Tacna, Peru" Water 13, no. 22: 3161. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223161

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