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Improvement of Log Reduction Values Design Equations for Helminth Egg Management in Recycled Water

Atura Pty Ltd., Mount Martha, VIC 3934, Australia
School of Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia
ARC Training Centre for the Transformation of Australia’s Biosolids Resource, RMIT University, Bundoora West, VIC 3083, Australia
South East Water, 101 Wells Street, Frankston, VIC 3199, Australia
SA Water, Australian Water Quality Centre, 250 Victoria Square, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
Melbourne Water, Docklands, VIC 3008, Australia
Water Futures, Pymble, NSW 2073, Australia
Ecos Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd., Templestowe, VIC 3106, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Layla Ben Ayed, Eleni Golomazou, Panagiotis Karanis, Patrick Scheid, Ourania Tzoraki, Anna Lass and Muhammad Shahid Iqbal
Water 2021, 13(22), 3149;
Received: 23 August 2021 / Revised: 19 October 2021 / Accepted: 19 October 2021 / Published: 9 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Emerging Solutions for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene)
Understanding and managing the risk posed by helminth eggs (HE) is a key concern for wastewater engineers and public health regulators. The treatment processes that produce recycled water from sewage at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) rely on achieving a defined log10 reduction value (LRV) in HE concentration during the production of recycled water from sewage to achieve the guideline concentration of ≤1.0 HE/L. The total concentration of HE in sewage reaches thousands of HE/L in developing countries and therefore, an LRV of 4.0 is generally accepted to achieve a safe concentration in recycled water, as this will meet the guideline value. However, in many developed countries with good sanitation and public health standards, the HE concentration in sewage is generally <10 HE/L. Therefore, validation of the sewage treatment process relied on to achieve an LRV of 4.0 can be difficult. Because of these limitations, design equations to predict LRVs from hydraulic retention times (HRT), which are geographically non-specific, are commonly relied on to ensure the production of safe quality recycled water with respect to HE. However, these design equations could be further refined by defining the design and management of the treatment process in greater detail and thus be used more effectively for determining the LRV required. This paper discusses the limitations and possible improvements that could be applied to LRV design equations for predicting HE removal at WWTPs and identifies the data requirements to support these improvements. Several options for LRV design equations are proposed that could be validated experimentally or via the ongoing operation of WWTPs. These improvements have the potential to assist the rationalization of the HE removal requirements for specific treatment options, exposure scenarios and use of recycled water in agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: helminth; egg; sewage; log reduction value; recycled water; treatment helminth; egg; sewage; log reduction value; recycled water; treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stevens, D.P.; Daniel, V.; Shahsavari, E.; Aburto-Medina, A.; Soni, S.K.; Khudur, L.S.; Khallaf, B.; Surapaneni, A.; Schmidt, J.; Keegan, A.; Crosbie, N.D.; Blackbeard, J.; Hampton, J.; Deere, D.; O’Connor, N.; Ball, A.S. Improvement of Log Reduction Values Design Equations for Helminth Egg Management in Recycled Water. Water 2021, 13, 3149.

AMA Style

Stevens DP, Daniel V, Shahsavari E, Aburto-Medina A, Soni SK, Khudur LS, Khallaf B, Surapaneni A, Schmidt J, Keegan A, Crosbie ND, Blackbeard J, Hampton J, Deere D, O’Connor N, Ball AS. Improvement of Log Reduction Values Design Equations for Helminth Egg Management in Recycled Water. Water. 2021; 13(22):3149.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stevens, Daryl P., Vivek Daniel, Esmaeil Shahsavari, Arturo Aburto-Medina, Sarvesh K. Soni, Leadin S. Khudur, Basma Khallaf, Aravind Surapaneni, Jonathan Schmidt, Alexandra Keegan, Nicholas D. Crosbie, Judy Blackbeard, James Hampton, Dan Deere, Nick O’Connor, and Andrew S. Ball. 2021. "Improvement of Log Reduction Values Design Equations for Helminth Egg Management in Recycled Water" Water 13, no. 22: 3149.

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