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Article

Optimal Sensor Placement in Hydraulic Conduit Networks: A State-Space Approach

1
Department for Mathematical and Statistical Methods—Biometris, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Layla Ben Ayed, Eleni Golomazou, Panagiotis Karanis, Patrick Scheid, Ourania Tzoraki, Anna Lass and Muhammad Shahid Iqbal
Water 2021, 13(21), 3105; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213105
Received: 8 October 2021 / Revised: 1 November 2021 / Accepted: 2 November 2021 / Published: 4 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Emerging Solutions for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene)
Conduit bursts or leakages present an ongoing problem for hydraulic fluid transport grids, such as oil or water conduit networks. Better monitoring allows for easier identification of burst sites and faster response strategies but heavily relies on sufficient insight in the network’s dynamics, obtained from real-time flow and pressure sensor data. This paper presents a linearized state-space model of hydraulic networks suited for optimal sensor placement. Observability Gramians are used to identify the optimal sensor configuration by maximizing the output energy of network states. This approach does not rely on model simulation of hydraulic burst scenarios or on burst sensitivity matrices, but, instead, it determines optimal sensor placement solely from the model structure, taking into account the pressure dynamics and hydraulics of the network. For a good understanding of the method, it is illustrated by two small water distribution networks. The results show that the best sensor locations for these networks can be accurately determined and explained. A third example is added to demonstrate our method to a more realistic case. View Full-Text
Keywords: optimal sensor placement; state-space representation; observability gramian; water distribution network optimal sensor placement; state-space representation; observability gramian; water distribution network
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MDPI and ACS Style

Geelen, C.V.C.; Yntema, D.R.; Molenaar, J.; Keesman, K.J. Optimal Sensor Placement in Hydraulic Conduit Networks: A State-Space Approach. Water 2021, 13, 3105. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213105

AMA Style

Geelen CVC, Yntema DR, Molenaar J, Keesman KJ. Optimal Sensor Placement in Hydraulic Conduit Networks: A State-Space Approach. Water. 2021; 13(21):3105. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213105

Chicago/Turabian Style

Geelen, Caspar V. C., Doekle R. Yntema, Jaap Molenaar, and Karel J. Keesman. 2021. "Optimal Sensor Placement in Hydraulic Conduit Networks: A State-Space Approach" Water 13, no. 21: 3105. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213105

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