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Article

Angular Modeling of the Components of Net Radiation in Agricultural Crops and Its Implications on Energy Balance Closure

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GRENASER, Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Montecillo 56230, Mexico
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Departamento de Ciencias del Agua y Medio Ambiente, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, Ciudad Obregón 85000, Mexico
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Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo 83000, Mexico
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Departamento de Agricultura y Ganadería, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo 83323, Mexico
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Programa Mexicano del Carbono, Texcoco 56225, Mexico
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Posgrado en Hidrociencias, Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Montecillo 56230, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Songhao Shang
Water 2021, 13(21), 3028; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213028
Received: 22 September 2021 / Revised: 22 October 2021 / Accepted: 22 October 2021 / Published: 28 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Efficient water management in agricultural crops is necessary to increase productivity and adapt to climate change. Evapotranspiration (ET) data are key in determining the water requirements of crops and set efficient irrigation schedules. Estimating ET at the regional scale (for example, in irrigation districts) is a technically complex task that has been tackled by using data acquired by remote sensors on satellites that can be validated with scaled up field measurements when area sources are matched. Energy and matter flux measurements using the eddy covariance (EC) technique are challenging due to balance closure issues, claimed to be due to the different footprints of the energy-balance components. We describe net radiometer footprints in terms of the sun-sensor geometry to characterize the bidirectional distribution functions of albedo and thermal emissions. In this context, we describe a one-parameter model of the components of net radiation that can be calibrated with a single data point. The model was validated in an experiment with five agricultural crops (bean, sorghum, chickpea, safflower, and wheat) at Valle del Yaqui, in Sonora, Mexico, using different sun-sensor geometry configurations. The results from the experimental fits were satisfactory (R2 > 0.99) and support the use of the model for albedo and radiative (surface) temperature in order to estimate net radiation. The analysis of the implications regarding a mismatch among footprints of the components of the energy balance showed that net radiometer fluxes are overestimated most of the time, implying that the closure problem could be solved by using a similar footprint as the aerodynamic components of the energy balance. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiative temperature; albedo; footprint; eddy covariance radiative temperature; albedo; footprint; eddy covariance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paz, F.; Marín, M.I.; Garatuza, J.; Watts, C.; Rodríguez, J.C.; Yepez, E.A.; Libert, A.; Bolaños, M.A. Angular Modeling of the Components of Net Radiation in Agricultural Crops and Its Implications on Energy Balance Closure. Water 2021, 13, 3028. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213028

AMA Style

Paz F, Marín MI, Garatuza J, Watts C, Rodríguez JC, Yepez EA, Libert A, Bolaños MA. Angular Modeling of the Components of Net Radiation in Agricultural Crops and Its Implications on Energy Balance Closure. Water. 2021; 13(21):3028. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paz, Fernando, Ma Isabel Marín, Jaime Garatuza, Christopher Watts, Julio Cesar Rodríguez, Enrico A. Yepez, Antoine Libert, and Martín Alejandro Bolaños. 2021. "Angular Modeling of the Components of Net Radiation in Agricultural Crops and Its Implications on Energy Balance Closure" Water 13, no. 21: 3028. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213028

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