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Permanent Thermal and Chemical Stratification in a Restored Urban Meromictic Lake

Department of Water Protection Engineering and Environmental Microbiology, Faculty of Geoengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Prawocheńskiego 1 Str., 10-720 Olsztyn, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anas Ghadouani
Water 2021, 13(21), 2979;
Received: 9 July 2021 / Revised: 13 October 2021 / Accepted: 18 October 2021 / Published: 22 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Eutrophication: Causes, Monitoring and Restoration)
Meromictic lakes are unique aquatic ecosystems that occur extremely rarely. The phenomenon of meromixis can result from both natural and anthropogenic factors. The aim of this study was to analyse thermal and chemical stratification in a small, deep (6 ha, H max = 24.5 m) lake. The evaluated lake had a typical summer thermal profile with a shallow epilimnion, a sharp thermocline, and a distinct monimolimnion layer in the hypolimnion, which was also maintained during circulation. The lake had a clinograde oxygen profile, with an oxygen deficit in the metalimnion and permanent anoxic conditions in the deeper layers, including during circulation. A redox zone was identified during summer stagnation. The monimolimnion formed a thermally isolated layer at a depth of around 15 m, and the chemocline was situated above the monimolimnion. In the chemocline, the EC gradient ranged from 61 to 77 μS·cm−1 per meter of depth in the summer and from 90 to 130 μS·cm−1 per meter of depth during circulation. EC was significantly correlated with Ca2+ concentration (r2 = 0.549). Chemical stratification, particularly with regard to organic matter distribution, was observed in the chemocline. The monimolimnion severely limited nutrient internal loading. View Full-Text
Keywords: lake; meromixis; monimolimnion; chemocline lake; meromixis; monimolimnion; chemocline
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tandyrak, R.; Grochowska, J.K.; Augustyniak, R.; Łopata, M. Permanent Thermal and Chemical Stratification in a Restored Urban Meromictic Lake. Water 2021, 13, 2979.

AMA Style

Tandyrak R, Grochowska JK, Augustyniak R, Łopata M. Permanent Thermal and Chemical Stratification in a Restored Urban Meromictic Lake. Water. 2021; 13(21):2979.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tandyrak, Renata, Jolanta Katarzyna Grochowska, Renata Augustyniak, and Michał Łopata. 2021. "Permanent Thermal and Chemical Stratification in a Restored Urban Meromictic Lake" Water 13, no. 21: 2979.

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