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Article

Evaluating the Productivity of Paddy Water Resources through SWOT Analysis: The Case of Northern Iran

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Department of Economics, Agricultural Extension and Education, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 14778-93855, Iran
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Department of Geography, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Research Group Climate Change and Security, Institute of Geography, University of Hamburg, 20144 Hamburg, Germany
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Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Rural Development Management, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74934, Iran
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Prince Sultan Institute for Environmental, Water & Desert Research, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
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Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University, 400294 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Cyprus International University, Haspolat, 99258 Nicosia, Turkey
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Mimikou
Water 2021, 13(21), 2964; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212964
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 12 October 2021 / Accepted: 16 October 2021 / Published: 20 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
Water shortages in rice production represent a formidable challenge for the world’s food, economic, and social security. Water is the most important single component for sustainable rice growth, especially in the world’s traditional rice-growing areas. Therefore, this study attempts to evaluate the improvement of rice water productivity in Northern Iran on the basis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis. This study is a qualitative-descriptive survey. A random sampling method was used to determine the sample size, and finally, 105 male and female rural facilitators in Sari city (the capital of Mazandaran Province located in Northern Iran) were surveyed. The results showed that the development of appropriate infrastructure, increasing new irrigation and drainage networks with the aim of increasing the use of efficient water technologies, was the most important strategy. The most necessary strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to improve the water productivity and management of paddy farms in the study area are, respectively, as follows: “fertile paddy fields and relatively good soils in most areas”, “weakness in the participation and interaction of users in water resources projects and paying attention only to the physical development of irrigation networks and ignoring the issues of network operation and farmers’ participation in the management”, “improving irrigation planning”, and “surplus harvest from Tajan River and drop in water level”. Obtained findings may be used to address water scarcity and water quality management issues in the agriculture sector. The results demonstrate that, under potential climate change and water shortages, SWOT may be seen as a guide for contingency initiatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: paddy water resource; water resource management; water productivity; SWOT matrix; Iran paddy water resource; water resource management; water productivity; SWOT matrix; Iran
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goli, I.; Azadi, H.; Nooripoor, M.; Baig, M.B.; Viira, A.-H.; Ajtai, I.; Özgüven, A.I. Evaluating the Productivity of Paddy Water Resources through SWOT Analysis: The Case of Northern Iran. Water 2021, 13, 2964. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212964

AMA Style

Goli I, Azadi H, Nooripoor M, Baig MB, Viira A-H, Ajtai I, Özgüven AI. Evaluating the Productivity of Paddy Water Resources through SWOT Analysis: The Case of Northern Iran. Water. 2021; 13(21):2964. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212964

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goli, Imaneh, Hossein Azadi, Mehdi Nooripoor, Mirza Barjees Baig, Ants-Hannes Viira, Iulia Ajtai, and Ahsen Işık Özgüven. 2021. "Evaluating the Productivity of Paddy Water Resources through SWOT Analysis: The Case of Northern Iran" Water 13, no. 21: 2964. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212964

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