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Article

Network Model Analysis of Residual Chlorine to Reduce Disinfection Byproducts in Water Supply Systems in Yangon City, Myanmar

Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiangyong Hu
Water 2021, 13(20), 2921; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202921
Received: 21 August 2021 / Revised: 10 October 2021 / Accepted: 15 October 2021 / Published: 17 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Pollution and Sanitation)
In Yangon City, chlorination commenced in January 2020 to supply drinkable water; therefore, there is as yet no information on chlorine decay and DBP formation in the water supply system. This study aimed to find methods to optimize chlorine dosage in Yangon City. Onsite sampling and laboratory analyses of residual chlorine and trihalomethane (THM) formation, as well as water quality simulations, were conducted to find the chlorine decay and THM formation kinetics. Due to a high chlorine dose of 2 mg/L for both pre- and post-chlorination, disinfection was effective despite the low removal efficiency of turbidity. However, THMs were found in high levels in both treated and tap water due to the high THM formation potential of raw water. The re-contamination and/or transformation of dissolved organic matter were found in the distribution network by increases in specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) values and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorophores, which brought about variations of THMs in the networks. The EPANET models were run assuming there to be no water leakages; it was found that the chlorine dose could be decreased to 0.8 mg/L to meet the guidelines for THMs and residual chlorine. The methods employed in this study could be also applied in other water supply systems in tropical developing countries with limited water quality monitoring data. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorination; dissolved organic carbon; EEM; EPANET; turbidity; THM formation chlorination; dissolved organic carbon; EEM; EPANET; turbidity; THM formation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zin, N.N.; Kazama, S.; Takizawa, S. Network Model Analysis of Residual Chlorine to Reduce Disinfection Byproducts in Water Supply Systems in Yangon City, Myanmar. Water 2021, 13, 2921. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202921

AMA Style

Zin NN, Kazama S, Takizawa S. Network Model Analysis of Residual Chlorine to Reduce Disinfection Byproducts in Water Supply Systems in Yangon City, Myanmar. Water. 2021; 13(20):2921. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202921

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zin, Nwe N., Shinobu Kazama, and Satoshi Takizawa. 2021. "Network Model Analysis of Residual Chlorine to Reduce Disinfection Byproducts in Water Supply Systems in Yangon City, Myanmar" Water 13, no. 20: 2921. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202921

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