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Article

Bioaugmentation-Enhanced Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Water in Pilot-Scale Floating Treatment Wetlands

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Soil & Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2W2, Canada
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Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Biological Interfaces (IBG 5), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zhongbing Chen and Goen Ho
Water 2021, 13(20), 2882; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202882
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 5 October 2021 / Accepted: 12 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollutants Removal from Wastewater Using Constructed Wetlands)
Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) are cost-effective systems for the remediation of polluted water. In FTWs, the metabolic activity of microorganisms associated with plants is fundamental to treatment efficiency. Bioaugmentation, the addition of microorganisms with pollutant-degrading capabilities, appears to be a promising means to enhance the treatment efficiency of FTWs. Here, we quantified the effect of bioaugmentation with a four-membered bacterial consortium on the remediation of water contaminated with crude oil in pilot-scale FTWs planted with Phragmites australis or Typha domingensis. The bacteria had been isolated from the endosphere and rhizosphere of various plants and carry the alkane hydroxylase gene, alkB, involved in aerobic hydrocarbon degradation. During a treatment period of 36 days, FTWs planted with P. australis achieved a reduction in hydrocarbon concentration from 300 mg/L to 16 mg/L with and 56 mg/L without bioaugmentation. In the FTWs planted with T. domingensis, respective hydrocarbon concentrations were 46 mg/L and 84 mg/L. The inoculated bacteria proliferated in the rhizoplane and in the plant interior. Copy numbers of the alkB gene and its mRNA increased over time in plant-associated samples, suggesting increased bacterial hydrocarbon degradation. The results show that bioaugmentation improved the treatment of oil-contaminated water in FTWs by at least a factor of two, indicating that the performance of full-scale systems can be improved at only small costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: nature-based solutions; water pollution and treatment; plant-bacteria interaction; Phragmites australis; Typha domingensis nature-based solutions; water pollution and treatment; plant-bacteria interaction; Phragmites australis; Typha domingensis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rehman, K.; Arslan, M.; Müller, J.A.; Saeed, M.; Imran, A.; Amin, I.; Mustafa, T.; Iqbal, S.; Afzal, M. Bioaugmentation-Enhanced Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Water in Pilot-Scale Floating Treatment Wetlands. Water 2021, 13, 2882. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202882

AMA Style

Rehman K, Arslan M, Müller JA, Saeed M, Imran A, Amin I, Mustafa T, Iqbal S, Afzal M. Bioaugmentation-Enhanced Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Water in Pilot-Scale Floating Treatment Wetlands. Water. 2021; 13(20):2882. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202882

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rehman, Khadeeja, Muhammad Arslan, Jochen A. Müller, Muhammad Saeed, Asma Imran, Imran Amin, Tanveer Mustafa, Samina Iqbal, and Muhammad Afzal. 2021. "Bioaugmentation-Enhanced Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Water in Pilot-Scale Floating Treatment Wetlands" Water 13, no. 20: 2882. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202882

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