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Article

Influence of Nano- and Small Microplastics on Ciliated Protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum (Müller, 1786) Ehrenberg, 1835

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1 Str., 02-097 Warszawa, Poland
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Academic Editor: Judith S. Weis
Water 2021, 13(20), 2857; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202857
Received: 20 September 2021 / Revised: 9 October 2021 / Accepted: 10 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Microplastics Pollution in the Aquatic Environment)
This study evaluated the uptake of secondary nano- and small microparticles by the protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum, comparing edible (baker’s yeasts) and inedible (red latex) particles. Secondary nano- and microplastic particles were prepared from household materials made of four different polymers and served to the protozoans separately and as two-component mixtures in different proportions. The number and content of food vacuoles formed by the protozoan were analyzed using a digital microscope. The microscopic results showed that the protozoans ingested the secondary microplastic particles to a similar degree as the latex microspheres but to a lesser extent compared to the nutritional food—baker’s yeasts. At the microplastic concentrations of 1000 and 10,000 particles mL−1, no food vacuoles were observed inside the cells, which may be a finding of great ecological importance. In the protozoans served two-component mixtures, both microplastics and yeasts were found in the vacuoles formed by the organisms. The egestion of two-component vacuoles by the protozoans was slower than that of vacuoles containing a single component. View Full-Text
Keywords: microplastics in the environment; secondary microplastics; food vacuoles; ingestion microplastics in the environment; secondary microplastics; food vacuoles; ingestion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nałęcz-Jawecki, G.; Chojnacka, J.; Wawryniuk, M.; Drobniewska, A. Influence of Nano- and Small Microplastics on Ciliated Protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum (Müller, 1786) Ehrenberg, 1835. Water 2021, 13, 2857. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202857

AMA Style

Nałęcz-Jawecki G, Chojnacka J, Wawryniuk M, Drobniewska A. Influence of Nano- and Small Microplastics on Ciliated Protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum (Müller, 1786) Ehrenberg, 1835. Water. 2021; 13(20):2857. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202857

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz, Justyna Chojnacka, Milena Wawryniuk, and Agata Drobniewska. 2021. "Influence of Nano- and Small Microplastics on Ciliated Protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum (Müller, 1786) Ehrenberg, 1835" Water 13, no. 20: 2857. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202857

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