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Rainfall Determines Shallow Soil Seepage in a Piedmont Summer Pasture of Alpine Meadow on the Northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau

by 1,†, 2,3,†, 2,3,4,*, 3, 3, 3, 2,3, 3 and 2,3,4
1
College of Life Sciences, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471934, China
2
Institute of Sanjiangyuan National Park, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China
3
Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China
4
Qinghai Provincial Key Laboratory of Restoration Ecology in Cold Region, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally.
Academic Editor: Jiangfeng Wei
Water 2021, 13(20), 2815; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202815
Received: 17 August 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 7 October 2021 / Published: 10 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Ecohydrology)
Soil seepage is an important component used for quantifying hydrological processes that remains unclear in high-altitude alpine meadows. Shallow soil seepage was continuously measured using an auto-logged micro-lysimeter (diameter = 30 cm, depth = 30 cm) from July 2018 to June 2019 in a piedmont summer pasture of alpine meadow on the Northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that all the shallow soil seepage events occurred during the non-frozen period from April to September and that the cumulative amount was 106.8 mm, representing about 1/5 of the annual precipitation. The maximum and minimum monthly soil seepage were 30.7 mm in September and 1.0 mm in April, respectively. The boosted regression trees (BRT) model’s area under the curve averaged 0.92 and revealed that the daily half-hour rainfall frequency, volumetric soil water content, and air temperature played significant roles in the daily soil seepage probability, with the cumulative relative contribution of 68%. The stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the rainfall amount accounted for 59% of the variation in the daily amount of soil seepage. The monthly soil seepage was found to be significantly correlated with the monthly rainfall frequency (r = 0.86, p = 0.005). Our results highlighted that rainfall, including its amount and frequency, was the key determinant of the probability and amount of shallow soil seepage in the piedmont summer pasture of alpine meadows. These findings will be helpful for improving predictions of the water budgets of piedmont alpine meadows. View Full-Text
Keywords: micro-lysimeter; soil seepage probability; soil seepage amount; boosted regression trees; piedmont summer pasture micro-lysimeter; soil seepage probability; soil seepage amount; boosted regression trees; piedmont summer pasture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, F.; Guo, X.; Li, Y.; Lin, L.; Li, Y.; Cao, G.; Zhou, H. Rainfall Determines Shallow Soil Seepage in a Piedmont Summer Pasture of Alpine Meadow on the Northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Water 2021, 13, 2815. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202815

AMA Style

Li H, Yang Y, Zhang F, Guo X, Li Y, Lin L, Li Y, Cao G, Zhou H. Rainfall Determines Shallow Soil Seepage in a Piedmont Summer Pasture of Alpine Meadow on the Northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Water. 2021; 13(20):2815. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202815

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Hongqin, Yongsheng Yang, Fawei Zhang, Xiaowei Guo, Yikang Li, Li Lin, Yingnian Li, Guangmin Cao, and Huakun Zhou. 2021. "Rainfall Determines Shallow Soil Seepage in a Piedmont Summer Pasture of Alpine Meadow on the Northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau" Water 13, no. 20: 2815. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202815

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