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Article

Two Comprehensive and Practical Methods for Simulating Pan Evaporation under Different Climatic Conditions in Iran

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Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35131-19111, Iran
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Department of Water and Hydraulic Structures Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35131-19111, Iran
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Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden
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Navarino Environmental Observatory, 24001 Messinia, Greece
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Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering (SEED), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden
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Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Renato Morbidelli
Water 2021, 13(20), 2814; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202814
Received: 29 August 2021 / Revised: 1 October 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 10 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Evaporation from surface water plays a crucial role in water accounting of basins, water resource management, and irrigation systems management. As such, the simulation of evaporation with high accuracy is very important. In this study, two methods for simulating pan evaporation under different climatic conditions in Iran were developed. In the first method, six experimental relationships (linear, quadratic, and cubic, with two input combinations) were determined for Iran’s six climate types, inspired by a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP-NN) neuron and optimized with the genetic algorithm. The best relationship of the six was selected for each climate type, and the results were presented in a three-dimensional graph. The best overall relationship obtained in the first method was used as the basic relationship in the second method, and climatic correction coefficients were determined for other climate types using the genetic algorithm optimization model. Finally, the accuracy of the two methods was validated using data from 32 synoptic weather stations throughout Iran. For the first method, error tolerance diagrams and statistical coefficients showed that a quadratic experimental relationship performed best under all climatic conditions. To simplify the method, two graphs were created based on the quadratic relationship for the different climate types, with the axes of the graphs showing relative humidity and temperature, and with pan evaporation, were drawn as contours. For the second method, the quadratic relationship for semi-dry conditions was selected as the basic relationship. The estimated climatic correction coefficients for other climate types lay between 0.8 and 1 for dry, semi-dry, semi-humid, Mediterranean climates, and between 0.4 and 0.6 for humid and very humid climates, indicating that one single relationship cannot be used to simulate pan evaporation for all climatic conditions in Iran. The validation results confirmed the accuracy of the two methods in simulating pan evaporation under different climatic conditions in Iran. View Full-Text
Keywords: Iran; pan evaporation; genetic algorithm; MLP neural network; experimental relationship Iran; pan evaporation; genetic algorithm; MLP neural network; experimental relationship
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dehghanipour, M.H.; Karami, H.; Ghazvinian, H.; Kalantari, Z.; Dehghanipour, A.H. Two Comprehensive and Practical Methods for Simulating Pan Evaporation under Different Climatic Conditions in Iran. Water 2021, 13, 2814. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202814

AMA Style

Dehghanipour MH, Karami H, Ghazvinian H, Kalantari Z, Dehghanipour AH. Two Comprehensive and Practical Methods for Simulating Pan Evaporation under Different Climatic Conditions in Iran. Water. 2021; 13(20):2814. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202814

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dehghanipour, Mohammad H., Hojat Karami, Hamidreza Ghazvinian, Zahra Kalantari, and Amir H. Dehghanipour 2021. "Two Comprehensive and Practical Methods for Simulating Pan Evaporation under Different Climatic Conditions in Iran" Water 13, no. 20: 2814. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202814

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