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Experimental Study for Sand Filter Backwash Water Management: Low-Cost Treatment for Recycling and Residual Sludge Utilization for Radium Removal

Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia
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Academic Editor: Alicia Ronda Gálvez
Water 2021, 13(20), 2799; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202799
Received: 2 September 2021 / Revised: 29 September 2021 / Accepted: 3 October 2021 / Published: 9 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
Management of backwash water (BW) generated from sand filtration of groundwater naturally contaminated with iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and radium (Ra) remains a challenge worldwide. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a low-cost clay ceramic filter for BW recycling along with residual sludge utilization for Ra removal from BW. A 15 day continuous ceramic filtration process operated at a constant flux of 2000 L/m2/d (83 LMH) showed 99% removal of Fe, Mn, and turbidity. The treated BW was found suitable for recycling back to the sand filters. Subsequently, the residual sand filter backwash sludge (BS) was collected, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction, and examined as a potential adsorbent to the Ra. Results showed that the sludge constituted heterogeneous basic elements, with higher percentages of iron and manganese oxides. The sludge can be classified as typical mesoporous and poorly crystalline minerals consisting primarily of quartz and Mn2O3. Over 60% of Ra from the initial 2.1 bq/L could be removed by sludge in 30 min at neutral pH. The adsorption kinetics of sludge described well by the pseudo-second order model and Ra adsorption on the sludge were mainly controlled by chemisorption rate-controlling steps, intraparticle diffusion, and external mass transfer processes. Treatment of BW by low-cost clay ceramic filters and the utilization the BS for Ra removal would be a sustainable sand filter BW management practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: sand filter; backwash water; backwash sludge; clay ceramic filter; recycling; radium adsorption sand filter; backwash water; backwash sludge; clay ceramic filter; recycling; radium adsorption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shafiquzzaman, M.; AlSaleem, S.S.; Haider, H.; Alresheedi, M.T.; Thabit, H. Experimental Study for Sand Filter Backwash Water Management: Low-Cost Treatment for Recycling and Residual Sludge Utilization for Radium Removal. Water 2021, 13, 2799. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202799

AMA Style

Shafiquzzaman M, AlSaleem SS, Haider H, Alresheedi MT, Thabit H. Experimental Study for Sand Filter Backwash Water Management: Low-Cost Treatment for Recycling and Residual Sludge Utilization for Radium Removal. Water. 2021; 13(20):2799. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202799

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shafiquzzaman, Md., Saleem S. AlSaleem, Husnain Haider, Mohammad T. Alresheedi, and Hussein Thabit. 2021. "Experimental Study for Sand Filter Backwash Water Management: Low-Cost Treatment for Recycling and Residual Sludge Utilization for Radium Removal" Water 13, no. 20: 2799. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202799

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