Surface water is an essential element that supports natural ecosystem health and human life, and its losses or gains are closely related to national or local sustainable development. Monitoring the spatial-temporal changes in surface water can directly support the reporting of progress towards the sustainable development goals (SDGs) outlined by the government, especially for measuring SDG 6.6.1 indicators. In our study, we focused on Baiyangdian Lake, an important lake in North China, and explored its spatiotemporal extent changes from 2014 to 2020. Using long-term Sentinel-1 SAR images and the OTSU algorithm, our study developed an automatic water extraction framework to monitor surface water changes in Baiyangdian Lake at a 10 m resolution from 2014 to 2020 on the Google Earth Engine cloud platform. The results showed that (1) the water extraction accuracy in our study was considered good, showing high consistency with the existing dataset. In addition, it was found that the classification accuracy in spring, summer, and fall was better than that in winter. (2) From 2014 to 2020, the surface water area of Baiyangdian Lake exhibited a slowly rising trend, with an average water area of 97.03 km2
. In terms of seasonal variation, the seasonal water area changed significantly. The water areas in spring and winter were larger than those in summer and fall. (3) Spatially, most of the water was distributed in the eastern part of Baiyangdian Lake, which accounted for roughly 57% of the total water area. The permanent water area, temporary water area, and non-water area covered 49.69 km2
, 97.77 km2
, and 171.55 km2
, respectively. Our study monitored changes in the spatial extent of the surface water of Baiyangdian Lake, provides useful information for the sustainable development of the Xiong’an New Area and directly reports the status of SDG 6.6.1 indicators over time.
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