Sponge City Program (SCP) and Urban Flood Management (UFM)—The Case of Guiyang, SW China
2. Background-Development of Urban Flood Management (UFM) in China
3.1. Case Study
3.2. Research Design
4.1. Grey Infrastructure in Urban Flood Management—The Case of Guiyang
“There were three remarkable flood events in my mind. They happened in summers of 1991, 1996 and 2014. The flood in 1991 mainly damaged lots of farmland due to the small urban scale at that time.” (Interviewee a)
“The flood in 1996 was most terrible in my mind. The heavy rainfall lasted two days. The water overflowed the riverbanks and submerged some landmarks, including Jiaxiu Pavilion (See Figure 4a) and Fountain Place. Many governmental bureaus, companies, and schools were closed three days. The flood damaged lots of houses and public facilities. The people’s life was seriously affected by this flood.” (Interviewee b)
“The rain was very intensive in 2014 as well. Fortunately, the flood did not affect us too much. The local government broadcasted the flood warning in advance. Although some roads were submerged by water (See Figure 4b–d), the city smoothly got through the flood event in 2014.” (Interviewee c)
“The seasonal rain that covered the Nanming catchment was the main reason for flood events in Guiyang. The rainy frequency, length, and intensity on the Nanming catchment resulted in flooding consequence in Guiyang.” (Interviewee A)
“There were two kinds of flood in Guiyang. The first was the fluvial flood, which caused huge damage to the riverside. Another is the regional pluvial event caused by the urban drainage system’s relatively low design standard. The current drainage design standard can only protect a rain with return period of 5 years. The pluvial event mostly happened on a small scale, such as in communities, roads, and parking lots. The fluvial and pluvial events usually both occurred in one intensive rain. For example, the floods in 1991, 1996 and 2014.” (Interviewee B)
“Comparing with small-scale pluvial events, the fluvial flood issue can result in huge losses to Guiyang. Therefore, flood management should focus more on catchment management. In the aspect, the upstream reservoirs, such as Huaxi Reservoir, Songbaishan Reservoir, and Aha Reservoir, play a critical role in the flood prevention.” (Interviewee C)
“According to our engineering experiences, the most effective way to reduce flood risks in Guiyang is still using reservoirs (storing upstream flood), flood tunnels (discharging flood bypass the city area), flood wall (protecting riverside urban area from the flood). (Interviewees M).
4.2. The Performance of SCP Infrastructures in UFM
“Currently, the SCP has partly improved urban flood protection standard to 30-year flood. But the SCP infrastructures were implemented on a small scale, such as rain gardens in communities, compared to the whole city scale of 380 km2. The SCP infrastructures did not show a very satisfactory capacity of flood prevention as expected. For example, Guanshan Lake Park, newly constructed in the 2010s, is a typical artificial wetland park. The Guanshan Lake Park and surrounding streets were totally submerged by intensive rainfall on 16 July 2014.” (Interviewee G).
“When the rain is moderate, the green gardens and wetland parks can hold the initial rainwater. If the intensive rainfall occurred, or the rainy duration was over three days, the water could rush out from the wetlands to submerge the nearby urban areas.” (Interviewee e).
“Branches, trash, and dirt easily blocked the urban drainage system. The maintenance services on the urban drainage system are inadequate. The blocked urban drainage system could stem the water from discharge, which may cause the pluvial events”. (Interviewee f)
“The current urban drainage system connected with SCP infrastructures is aged. It is outdated with relatively low designing standards. It can only protect a rain with return period of 5 years. The urban drainage system cannot cope with the current requirement of flood management.” (Interviewee H)
4.3. People’s Awareness
“Most residents living alongside Nanming River had an experience of flood events. Other residents who lived on higher altitudes recognized the flood issues from social media (e.g., newspapers and TV news) and new media channels (e.g., WeChat and Weibo). The perception of the flood is affected by people’s living areas. Meanwhile, the knowledge, educational degree, and working experience influence the people awareness.” (Interviewee I)
“I understand the flood prevention job is essential. The dams and floodwalls were certainly built to control the flood and protect us. Regarding the green garden and wetland park, I thought they provide us leisure places to enjoy. I don’t understand how the gardens and parks can store the water to reduce the flood risk.” (Interviewee h)
“The Chinese Government has the relative centralized power to implement the rescue works. There were lots of successful stories in rescue tasks. Media channels broadly propagandized these heroes. Most of the citizens trust that the Government has the willingness and ability to protect them from natural hazards. On the other hand, many citizens have gradually lost self-protection sense due to the propagandas of the strong ability on governmental emergency management.” (Interviewee G)
5. Discussion—Looking Forward to UFM and SCP in Guiyang
5.1. Implementing Natural Flood Management (NFM) at the Catchment Scale
5.2. Improving People Awareness via Public Participation
“We hope the government can hear our voice. But we are not experts. Officials may not listen to us. In addition, we have no time on public affairs except for involving our benefits and interests.” (Interview i)
5.3. Developing Cooperative All Phases Emergency Management
“For the most part, the authorities can cooperate in flood management issues. However, there is a part of overlaps in bureaus’ responsibilities.” (Interviewee A)
“The overlapping power could challenge on the partnership on flood management. For example, the wetland parks were usually designed with less consideration of the urban drainage system in Guiyang. In addition, the Urban Construction Bureau put more focus on road and building infrastructures rather than considering the hydrological issues.” (Interviewee B)
“It seems that the Emergency Management Bureau can coordinate all bureaus in emergency services and rescue jobs. Most time, the Emergency Management Bureau can order rescue teams. But we still have to apply for Municipal Government’s coordination in real rescue works.” (Interviewee H)
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- La Loggia, G.; Puleo, V.; Freni, G. Floodability: A New Paradigm for Designing Urban Drainage and Achieving Sustainable Urban Growth. Water Resour. Manag. 2020, 34, 3411–3424. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Burian, S.J.; Edwards, F.G. Historical Perspectives of Urban Drainage. Glob. Solut. Urban Drain. 2002, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Francipane, A.; Pumo, D.; Sinagra, M.; La Loggia, G.; Noto, L.V. A paradigm of extreme rainfall pluvial floods in complex urban areas: The flood event of 15 July 2020 in Palermo (Italy). Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 2021, 21, 2563–2580. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rosenzweig, B.; Ruddell, B.L.; McPhillips, L.; Hobbins, R.; McPhearson, T.; Cheng, Z.; Chang, H.; Kim, Y. Developing knowledge systems for urban resilience to cloudburst rain events. Environ. Sci. Policy 2019, 99, 150–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Guiyang Municipal Government. Guiyang Emergency Plan for Flood Control and Drought Relief; Guiyang Municipal Government: Guiyang, China, 2020.
- Wu, Y.; Liu, J.; Xie, H.; Yu, G.; Zhou, H.; Yan, Y. Towards government mechanisms of sponge city construction in China: Insights from developed countries. Water Policy 2020, 22, 574–590. [Google Scholar]
- Griffiths, J.; Chan, F.K.S.; Shao, M.; Zhu, F.; Higgitt, D.L. Interpretation and application of Sponge City guidelines in China. Philos. Trans. A Math Phys. Eng. Sci. 2020, 378, 20190222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Li, H.; Ding, L.; Ren, M.; Li, C.; Wang, H. Sponge City Construction in China: A Survey of the Challenges and Opportunities. Water 2017, 9, 594. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Wang, H.; Mei, C.; Liu, J.; Shao, W. A new strategy for integrated urban water management in China: Sponge city. Sci. China Technol. Sci. 2018, 61, 317–329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wingfield, T.; Macdonald, N.; Peters, K.; Spees, J.; Potter, K. Natural Flood Management: Beyond the evidence debate. Area 2019, 51, 743–751. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Qi, Y.; Chan, F.K.S.; Thorne, C.; O’Donnell, E.; Quagliolo, C.; Comino, E.; Pezzoli, A.; Li, L.; Griffiths, J.; Sang, Y.; et al. Addressing Challenges of Urban Water Management in Chinese Sponge Cities via Nature-Based Solutions. Water 2020, 12, 2788. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ministry of Water Resources. 2018 Statistic Bulletin China Water Activities; Ministry of Water Resources: Beijing, China, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Chan, F.K.S.; Yang, L.E.; Scheffran, J.; Mitchell, G.; Adekola, O.; Griffiths, J.; Chen, Y.; Li, G.; Lu, X.; Qi, Y.; et al. Urban flood risks and emerging challenges in a Chinese delta: The case of the Pearl River Delta. Environ. Sci. Policy 2021, 122, 101–115. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Liu, J.; Zang, C.; Tian, S.; Liu, J.; Yang, H.; Jia, S.; You, L.; Liu, B.; Zhang, M. Water conservancy projects in China: Achievements, challenges and way forward. Glob. Environ. Chang. 2013, 23, 633–643. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Qi, Y.; Chan, F.K.S.; O’Donnell, E.C.; Feng, M.; Sang, Y.; Thorne, C.R.; Griffiths, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, S.; Zhang, C.; et al. Exploring the Development of the Sponge City Program (SCP): The Case of Gui’an New District, Southwest China. Front. Water 2021, 3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. The Construction Guideline of Sponge City in China-Low Impact Development of Storm Water System (Trail); Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development: Beijing, China, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. The Water Law; Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress: Beijing, China, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- The National Council. The Announcement of Strengthening Urban Flood Control Works; The National Council: Beijing, China, 1989. [Google Scholar]
- Ministry of Water Resources. The Outline of Urban Flood Control Planning; Ministry of Water Resources: Beijing, China, 1990. [Google Scholar]
- The National People’s Congress. The National Flood Control Law (Revised in 2007); The National People’s Congress: Beijing, China, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- The General Office of Flood Defense. The Notice of Strengthening Urban Flood Control Planning; The General Office of Flood Defense: Beijing, China, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- The National People’s Congress. The National Law of Urban and Rural Planning; The National People’s Congress: Beijing, China, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- The National People’s Congress. The National Land Management Law; The National People’s Congress: Beijing, China, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Guiyang Municipal Government. The Master Plan of Guiyang City; Guiyang Municipal Government: Guiyang, China, 2015.
- Guizhou Local Chronicles Committee. The Economy and Population Development of Guiyang. Available online: http://www.gzdafzxx.cn/ (accessed on 2 May 2020).
- Statistics Bureau of Guiyang. Statistical Bulletin. Available online: http://tjj.guiyang.gov.cn/tjsj/tjsjtjgb/ (accessed on 1 May 2020).
- Guiyang Municipal Government. The Sponge City Planning of Guiyang Central City (2019–2030); Guiyang Municipal Government: Guiyang, China, 2019.
- Thorne, C.R.; O’Donnell, E.C.; Ozawa, C.P. Overcoming uncertainty and barriers to adoption of Blue-Green Infrastructure for urban flood risk management. J. Flood Risk Manag. 2015, 10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Standing Committee of the Guizhou People’s Congress. Guizhou Regulation for Flood Control; FAO: Guiyang, China, 2003; revised in 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Standing Committee of the Guizhou People’s Congress. Guizhou Regulation for River Administration; Standing Committee of the Guizhou People’s Congress: Guiyang, China, revised in 2019.
- Standing Committee of the Guiyang People’s Congress. The Regulation of Guiyang Urban Planning and Management; Standing Committee of the Guiyang People’s Congress: Guiyang, China, revised in 2006.
- Standing Committee of the Guiyang People’s Congress. Guiyang Regulation for River Administration; Standing Committee of the Guiyang People’s Congress: Guiyang, China, revised in 2004.
- Catherine, S.R.; Kirsti, N.; Marie, L.R. Conducting the Reference Interview, 3rd ed.; Neal-Schuman: New York, NY, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Bolderston, A. Conducting a Research Interview. J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Sci. 2012, 43, 66–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Qu, S.Q.; Dumay, J. The qualitative research interview. Qual. Res. Account. Manag. 2011, 8, 238–264. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Galletta, A.; Cross., W.E. Mastering the Semi-Structured Interview and Beyond: From Research Design to Analysis and Publication; NYU Press: New York, NY, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Edwards, R.; Holland, J. What Is Qualitative Interviewing? Bloomsbury Academic: London, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Guiyang Municipal Government. Guiyang Water Supply and Discharge Special Plan for 13th Five-Year; Guiyang Municipal Government: Guiyang, China, 2015.
- Guizhou Survey & Design Research Institute for Water Resources and Hydropower. The Comprehensive Water Resources Planning for Guiyang; National Research Center for Resettlement: Guiyang, China, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Guizhou Survey & Design Research Institute for Water Resources and Hydropower. The Flood Control Planning for Guiyang; Guizhou Survey & Design Research Institute for Water Resources and Hydropower: Guiyang, China, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Guizhou Survey & Design Research Institute for Water Resources and Hydropower. Flood Control Evaluation of Nanming River Regulation Project; Guizhou Survey & Design Research Institute for Water Resources and Hydropower: Guiyang, China, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Guizhou Survey & Design Research Institute for Water Resources and Hydropower. The Construction Planning of Flood Control Infrastructures for Guiyang; Guizhou Survey & Design Research Institute for Water Resources and Hydropower: Guiyang, China, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Guiyang Municipal Government. Guiyang Emergency Plan for Flood Control and Drought Relief; Guiyang Municipal Government: Guiyang, China, 2018.
- Hydrology Bureau of Guizhou Province. Flood Report of Guizhou Province; Hydrology Bureau of Guizhou Province: Guiyang, China, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Guiyang Municipal Government. The Sponge City Implementational Plan for Guiyang; Guiyang Municipal Government: Guiyang, China, 2016.
- Guiyang Municipal Government. The Sponge City Construction Planning of Guiyang Central City (2016–2030); Guiyang Municipal Government: Guiyang, China, 2016.
- Guiyang Municipal Government. Available online: http://www.guiyang.gov.cn/ (accessed on 22 November 2020).
- Guiyang Water Conservancy Bureau. Available online: http://swglj.guiyang.gov.cn/ (accessed on 21 November 2020).
- Guiyang Natural Resources Bureau. Available online: http://zyghj.guiyang.gov.cn/ (accessed on 20 November 2020).
- Guiyang Emergency Management Bureau. Available online: http://yjj.guiyang.gov.cn/ (accessed on 20 November 2020).
- Guiyang Urban Construction Bureau. Available online: http://zhujianju.guiyang.gov.cn/ (accessed on 19 November 2020).
- Chan, F.K.S.; Chuah, C.J.; Ziegler, A.D.; Dąbrowski, M.; Varis, O. Towards resilient flood risk management for Asian coastal cities: Lessons learned from Hong Kong and Singapore. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 187, 576–589. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Xiang, C.; Liu, J.; Shao, W.; Mei, C.; Zhou, J. Sponge city construction in China: Policy and implementation experiences. Water Policy 2019, 21, 19–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Short, C.; Clarke, L.; Carnelli, F.; Uttley, C.; Smith, B. Capturing the multiple benefits associated with nature-based solutions: Lessons from a natural flood management project in the Cotswolds, UK. Land Degrad. Dev. 2019, 30, 241–252. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Iacob, O.; Brown, I.; Rowan, J. Natural flood management, land use and climate change trade-offs: The case of Tarland catchment, Scotland. Hydrol. Sci. J. 2017, 62, 1931–1948. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Dadson, S.J.; Hall, J.W.; Murgatroyd, A.; Acreman, M.; Bates, P.; Beven, K.; Heathwaite, L.; Holden, J.; Holman, I.P.; Lane, S.N.; et al. A restatement of the natural science evidence concerning catchment-based ‘natural’ flood management in the UK. Proc. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 2017, 473, 20160706. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Lane, S.N. Natural flood management. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Water 2017, 4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Li, N.; Qin, C.; Du, P. Multicriteria Decision Analysis Applied to Sponge City Construction in China: A Case Study. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 2019, 15, 703–713. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lu, X.; Han, Z. Emergency management in China: Towards a comprehensive model? J. Risk Res. 2018, 22, 1425–1442. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Flood management strategy||There were few large and medium-sized water conservancy projects.||The government began to build reservoirs on urban upstream reaches.||The government began to build floodwall and levees on urban upstream reaches.||The urban drainage system has been gradually improved, but the standard is still low (1-in-1 to 1-in-5 years).||Starting to implement natural flood management (e.g., SCP).|
|Measures options||No flood management strategy was evident.||A fluvial-source strategy focusing on control flood source||A river-reaches approach focusing on preventing fluvial flood on urban reaches||An inner-urban strategy aiming to solve urban pluvial issues||An ecological strategy to improve landscape and peoples’ well-being and reduce flood risk|
|Investment source||Lack of financial support||Government investment||Government investment||Government investment||A public and private partnership investment model|
|Climate change consideration||No||No||Major consideration of the local meteorological and flood characteristics||Major consideration of the local meteorological and flood characteristics||Starting to realize the significant impact of global climate change.|
|Public participation||All projects were government-led, limited public participation.||All projects were government-led.||All projects were government-led.||Most projects were government-led, but public participation is limited.||The National Government started to realize the importance of stakeholders’ participation, but most projects were still a government-led model.|
|Flood warning system||No||No||No||An early warning system based on meteorological forecasts was set up, but it was difficult to realize the real-time flood warning function.||An online flood warning system based on big data technology has been built.|
|Emergency planning and management||No systematic emergency rescue system.||No systematic emergency rescue system.||No systematic emergency rescue system.||Each department independently carried out various disaster relief. For example, the water department was responsible for flood relief, and the fire department was responsible for fire relief.||A comprehensive emergency rescue system and rescue team was initially established.|
|Respondents||Bureau/Department||Respondent ID||Position||Professional Title||Age||Main Questions|
|Officials||Municipal Government||A||Secretary General||\||50||(1) What is the leading cause of the most significant flood in Guiyang? (2) What is the status of the flood projects in the Nanming River Basin? (3) Please describe the developing conditions of the SCP in Guiyang. (4) What is the design standard of the sewers of Guiyang? Can this designing standard meet flood control needs? (5) What do you think is the leading cause of the flood disaster in Guiyang? (6) Please briefly introduce the relationship between SCP and flood projects. (7) Please introduce the success or failure of emergency management in Guiyang. (8) What is the level of public awareness of flood hazards? (9) Are there many opportunities for the public to participate in urban planning, engineering design, and policymaking? What are the ways to participate? (10) Please briefly introduce your suggestions on urban flood management, catchment flood management, and SCP.|
|B||Deputy Secretary General||\||45|
|Water Conservancy Bureau||C||Director General||Senior Engineer||56|
|D||Chief Engineer||Senior Engineer||50|
|Natural Resources Bureau||E||Deputy Director General||Senior Engineer||55|
|F||Deputy Chief Engineer||Senior Engineer||50|
|Emergency Management Bureau||G||Deputy Director General||Senior Engineer||48|
|H||Deputy Chief Engineer||Senior Engineer||45|
|Urban Construction Bureau||I||Deputy Director General||Senior Engineer||45|
|J||Deputy Chief Engineer||Senior Engineer||50|
|Engineers||Urban Planning Engineers||K||Deputy General Manager||Senior Engineer||50|
|L||Project Manager||Senior Engineer||42|
|Water Engineers||M||General Manager||Senior Engineer||58|
|N||Project Manager||Senior Engineer||43|
|Residents||\||a~e||\||\||40~55||(1) When did you experience an enormous flood? (2) What other major floods have you experienced except for the most significant flood event? (3) How did these floods affect your life? (4) Do you remember which landmarks submerged in previous floods? What did you suffer from the flood you experienced? (5) What do you think of the local government’s rescue efforts? (6) Do you have any emergency relief supplies in your home? (7) Do you know anything about emergency rescue knowledge? How do you know this? (8) What recommendations do you have about flood management?|
|Rank||Flooding Date||Flood Type||Flood Peak (m3/s)||Precipitation in 24 Hours (mm)||Direct Economic Losses (Million RMB)||Houses Have Been Flooded||Casualties (People)|
|1||2 July 1996||Fluvial flood||878||197.3||3260||8671 (collapsed)||89|
|2||1 July 1991||Fluvial flood||573||112.0||90||no statistics||/|
|3||16 July 2014||Fluvial flood||850||201.7||495||parts of underground parking lots||/|
|Guiyang Municipal Government||http://www.guiyang.gov.cn/|||
|Guiyang Water Conservancy Bureau||http://swglj.guiyang.gov.cn/|||
|Guiyang Natural Resources Bureau||http://zyghj.guiyang.gov.cn/|||
|Guiyang Emergency Management Bureau||http://yjj.guiyang.gov.cn/|||
|Guiyang Urban Construction Bureau||http://zhujianju.guiyang.gov.cn/|||
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Qi, Y.; Shun Chan, F.K.; Griffiths, J.; Feng, M.; Sang, Y.; O’Donnell, E.; Hutchins, M.; Thadani, D.R.; Li, G.; Shao, M.; Xie, L.; Liu, S.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.; Liu, L.; Zhong, M. Sponge City Program (SCP) and Urban Flood Management (UFM)—The Case of Guiyang, SW China. Water 2021, 13, 2784. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192784
Qi Y, Shun Chan FK, Griffiths J, Feng M, Sang Y, O’Donnell E, Hutchins M, Thadani DR, Li G, Shao M, Xie L, Liu S, Zhang C, Li X, Liu L, Zhong M. Sponge City Program (SCP) and Urban Flood Management (UFM)—The Case of Guiyang, SW China. Water. 2021; 13(19):2784. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192784Chicago/Turabian Style
Qi, Yunfei, Faith Ka Shun Chan, James Griffiths, Meili Feng, Yanfang Sang, Emily O’Donnell, Michael Hutchins, Dimple R. Thadani, Gang Li, Mengqi Shao, Linjun Xie, Sitong Liu, Chunguang Zhang, Xinan Li, Lingyun Liu, and Ming Zhong. 2021. "Sponge City Program (SCP) and Urban Flood Management (UFM)—The Case of Guiyang, SW China" Water 13, no. 19: 2784. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192784