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Article

Effectiveness of Permeable Reactive Bio-Barriers for Bioremediation of an Organohalide-Polluted Aquifer by Natural-Occurring Microbial Community

1
Dipartimento di Scienze per Gli Alimenti, la Nutrizione e L’Ambiente (DeFENS), Università Degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, I-20133 Milano, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Della Terra “Ardito Desio”, Università Degli Studi di Milano, Via Mangiagalli 34, I-20133 Milano, Italy
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Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali (DISAA), Università Degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, I-20133 Milano, Italy
4
TAUW Italia, I-20133 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Geoffrey J. Puzon, Ka Yu Cheng and Anna H. Kaksonen
Water 2021, 13(17), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172442
Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 30 August 2021 / Accepted: 31 August 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021
In this study, a bioremediation approach was evaluated for the decontamination of an aquifer affected by the release of organohalides by an industrial landfill. After preliminary physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the landfill groundwater, the stimulation of natural organohalide respiration by the addition of a reducing substrate (i.e., molasse) was tested both at microcosm and at field scales, by the placement of an anaerobic permeable reactive bio-barrier. Illumina sequencing of cDNA 16S rRNA gene revealed that organohalide-respiring bacteria of genera Geobacter, Sulfurospirillum, Dehalococcoides, Clostridium and Shewanella were present within the aquifer microbial community, along with fermentative Firmicutes and Parvarchaeota. Microcosm experiments confirmed the presence of an active natural attenuation, which was boosted by the addition of the reducing substrate. Field tests showed that the bio-barrier decreased the concentration of chloroethenes at a rate of 23.74 kg d−1. Monitoring of organohalide respiration biomarkers by qPCR and Illumina sequencing revealed that native microbial populations were involved in the dechlorination process, although their specific role still needs to be clarified. The accumulation of lower-chloroethenes suggested the need of future improvement of the present approach by supporting bacterial vinyl-chloride oxidation, to achieve a complete degradation of chloroethenes. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial bioremediation; organohalide respiration; permeable reactive bio-barrier; microcosms; reductive dehalogenases; Chloroflexi microbial bioremediation; organohalide respiration; permeable reactive bio-barrier; microcosms; reductive dehalogenases; Chloroflexi
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bertolini, M.; Zecchin, S.; Beretta, G.P.; De Nisi, P.; Ferrari, L.; Cavalca, L. Effectiveness of Permeable Reactive Bio-Barriers for Bioremediation of an Organohalide-Polluted Aquifer by Natural-Occurring Microbial Community. Water 2021, 13, 2442. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172442

AMA Style

Bertolini M, Zecchin S, Beretta GP, De Nisi P, Ferrari L, Cavalca L. Effectiveness of Permeable Reactive Bio-Barriers for Bioremediation of an Organohalide-Polluted Aquifer by Natural-Occurring Microbial Community. Water. 2021; 13(17):2442. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172442

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bertolini, Martina, Sarah Zecchin, Giovanni P. Beretta, Patrizia De Nisi, Laura Ferrari, and Lucia Cavalca. 2021. "Effectiveness of Permeable Reactive Bio-Barriers for Bioremediation of an Organohalide-Polluted Aquifer by Natural-Occurring Microbial Community" Water 13, no. 17: 2442. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172442

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