Next Article in Journal
The Significance of Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotopes in the Water Vapor Source in Dingxi Area
Previous Article in Journal
Ecological Influences of Water-Level Fluctuation on Food Web Network
Article

A Study on the Flux of Total Suspended Matter in the Padma River in Bangladesh Based on Remote-Sensing Data

by 1, 1,2,*, 1,3, 1,2 and 1,3
1
State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Hangzhou 310012, China
2
Marine Resources Big Data Center of South China Sea, Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Zhanjiang 524088, China
3
National Earth System Science Data Center, Beijing 100101, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Achim A. Beylich
Water 2021, 13(17), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172373
Received: 14 July 2021 / Revised: 23 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 29 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
The flux of total suspended matter (TSM), FTSM, output by several large rivers in Asia, has been in decline due to human activities. As the estuary of the Ganges–Brahmaputra River, the Padma River transports a significant amount of suspended matter (SM) to the Bay of Bengal each year. In this study, the TSM concentration (CTSM) and FTSM in the Padma River in the period 1991–2019 were calculated based on the data acquired by the Landsat series satellites and an empirical TSM algorithm model for large, high-turbidity rivers. The results showed that the maximum and minimum FTSM values (318 ± 62 and 73 ± 29 mt, respectively) in the Padma River occurred in 2011 and 2015, respectively. On average, FTSM in the Padma River decreased at an annual rate of 3.3 mt (p < 0.01). The impact of human activities on CTSM contributed more significantly to the changes in FTSM (R = 0.76) than natural factors (R = 0.44). Due to a lack of water conservancy facilities within the river basin, changes in the water and soil retention capacity due to the changes in vegetation coverage were an important human factor (R = −0.79). View Full-Text
Keywords: total suspended matter; Bay of Bengal; Landsat; flux estimation total suspended matter; Bay of Bengal; Landsat; flux estimation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, Z.; Wang, D.; Gong, F.; He, X.; Bai, Y. A Study on the Flux of Total Suspended Matter in the Padma River in Bangladesh Based on Remote-Sensing Data. Water 2021, 13, 2373. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172373

AMA Style

Zheng Z, Wang D, Gong F, He X, Bai Y. A Study on the Flux of Total Suspended Matter in the Padma River in Bangladesh Based on Remote-Sensing Data. Water. 2021; 13(17):2373. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172373

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zheng, Zhuoqi, Difeng Wang, Fang Gong, Xianqiang He, and Yan Bai. 2021. "A Study on the Flux of Total Suspended Matter in the Padma River in Bangladesh Based on Remote-Sensing Data" Water 13, no. 17: 2373. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172373

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop