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Review of Techniques to Reduce and Prevent Carbonate Scale. Prospecting in Water Treatment by Magnetism and Electromagnetism

1
University Institute of Chemical Process Engineering, University of Alicante, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
2
University Institute of Water and Environmental Sciences, University of Alicante, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carmen Teodosiu
Water 2021, 13(17), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172365
Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 20 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 28 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Carbonate scale is one of the main problems in hot water systems, and therefore, interest in this subject has grown since 2000s. Water treatments, based on magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) techniques to prevent scale, are being commercialized, but their effectiveness is not clearly demonstrated because it depends on temperature, pressure, dissolved CO2, pH, field intensity, water flow, etc. In this paper, a review of these techniques, together with other classical techniques, such as chemical softening, the use of inhibitors, ion exchange, electrochemical and membrane treatments is presented. The latter alter the composition of the water and generate hazardous waste for health and the environment, unlike magnetic and EM treatments, which are considered non-invasive techniques. Different hypotheses are used to explain the effect of these treatments, such as the formation of aragonite instead of calcite or crystal nuclei formation within the fluid. Analysis of salts formed with SEM, X-ray diffraction, or colorimetric tests seem to support the efficiency of these treatments since study in the fluid is not easy. Dissolution of the formed scale or its prevention endorse the commercialization of these techniques, but their effectiveness must be verified in each installation. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium carbonate; magnetic treatment; electromagnetic treatment; scale prevention; water hardness; softening calcium carbonate; magnetic treatment; electromagnetic treatment; scale prevention; water hardness; softening
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez Moya, S.; Boluda Botella, N. Review of Techniques to Reduce and Prevent Carbonate Scale. Prospecting in Water Treatment by Magnetism and Electromagnetism. Water 2021, 13, 2365. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172365

AMA Style

Martínez Moya S, Boluda Botella N. Review of Techniques to Reduce and Prevent Carbonate Scale. Prospecting in Water Treatment by Magnetism and Electromagnetism. Water. 2021; 13(17):2365. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172365

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez Moya, Sergio, and Nuria Boluda Botella. 2021. "Review of Techniques to Reduce and Prevent Carbonate Scale. Prospecting in Water Treatment by Magnetism and Electromagnetism" Water 13, no. 17: 2365. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172365

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