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Article

Assessment of Arsenic Levels in Water, Sediment, and Human Hair around Ie Seu’um Geothermal Manifestation Area, Aceh, Indonesia

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Graduate School of Mathematics and Applied Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
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Department of Midwifery, Health Polytechnic of Aceh Ministry of Health, Aceh Besar 23241, Indonesia
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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
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Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
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Laboratory of Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
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Department of Medical Chemistry/Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarbaru 70124, Indonesia
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Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
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Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Widory
Water 2021, 13(17), 2343; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172343
Received: 11 July 2021 / Revised: 16 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 26 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
The concentration of arsenic in water, sediment, and resident hair in the Ie Seu’um geothermal manifestation area has been analyzed using the Atomic Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GF-AAS) method. Sediment and hair samples were prepared by wet digestion using an acid solution. The measurement results were validated by linearity, Limit of Detection (LoD), Limit of Quantification (LoQ), Relative Standard Deviation (%RSD), and %Recovery. The validation test showed that this method is very linear, sensitive, accurate, and precise with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999, LoD of 0.009 μg/L, LoQ of 0.027 μg/L, recovery values of 89.117–101.027% for hair samples and 88.337–105.175% for sediment samples, and RSD of 1.067%. The sample test results showed that the hot springs contained the highest arsenic with levels of 166.73 ± 0.0081 μg/L (IS1). In comparison, the water samples with the lowest arsenic levels were in the rivers that had not been in direct contact with the hot water (IS2) flow, which is 0.80 ± 0.0036 μg/L. All the river water samples that had been in contact with hot water were boreholes, and the resident boreholes located around hot water streams/rivers contaminated with arsenic were above the threshold. Only the river water that had not been in contact with hot water, refill water, and borehole waters outside the hot water flow were detected to be below the threshold level. All the sediment samples showed arsenic contamination, with levels ranging from 2.56–6.86 mg/kg, and it was still within the normal limits recommended by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Arsenic exposures in communities living around the Ie Seu’um geothermal area, Mesjid Raya Sub-District, Aceh Besar District, Aceh Province, were very high, where 9 out of 10 respondents were positive for arsenic with levels ranging from 54.59–164.57 mg/kg, which was already above the threshold set by the researchers. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic analysis; human hair; atomic absorption spectrophotometry; Ie Seu’um geothermal manifestation; Indonesia arsenic analysis; human hair; atomic absorption spectrophotometry; Ie Seu’um geothermal manifestation; Indonesia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Irnawati, I.; Idroes, R.; Zulfiani, U.; Akmal, M.; Suhartono, E.; Idroes, G.M.; Muslem, M.; Lala, A.; Yusuf, M.; Saiful, S.; Suhud, K.; Safitri, E.; Jalil, Z. Assessment of Arsenic Levels in Water, Sediment, and Human Hair around Ie Seu’um Geothermal Manifestation Area, Aceh, Indonesia. Water 2021, 13, 2343. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172343

AMA Style

Irnawati I, Idroes R, Zulfiani U, Akmal M, Suhartono E, Idroes GM, Muslem M, Lala A, Yusuf M, Saiful S, Suhud K, Safitri E, Jalil Z. Assessment of Arsenic Levels in Water, Sediment, and Human Hair around Ie Seu’um Geothermal Manifestation Area, Aceh, Indonesia. Water. 2021; 13(17):2343. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172343

Chicago/Turabian Style

Irnawati, Irnawati, Rinaldi Idroes, Utari Zulfiani, Muslim Akmal, Eko Suhartono, Ghazi M. Idroes, Muslem Muslem, Andi Lala, Muhammad Yusuf, Saiful Saiful, Khairi Suhud, Eka Safitri, and Zulkarnain Jalil. 2021. "Assessment of Arsenic Levels in Water, Sediment, and Human Hair around Ie Seu’um Geothermal Manifestation Area, Aceh, Indonesia" Water 13, no. 17: 2343. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172343

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