Infiltration and inflow (I/I) to wastewater systems cause e.g., flooding, pollution, and the unnecessary use of the limited resources in society. Due to climate change and an increased need for the renewal of piping systems, making the right decisions on how to handle I/I is more important than ever. This paper presents a novel framework for risk-based decision support on I/I based on established theories on risk assessment and decision-making. The framework is presented on a general level and suggests that uncertainties are included in the decision-making process, together with criteria representing the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainability. Published models on I/I and decision support are evaluated based on criteria from the framework showing that (1) the models rarely include risk-based decision-making or uncertainties in the analyses and that (2) most models only include project-internal financial aspects, excluding social and environmental, as well as project-external aspects, of I/I and I/I measures. A need for further research to develop a more holistic decision support model for I/I is identified, and it is concluded that the application of the proposed framework can contribute to more sustainable decisions on how to handle I/I and provide transparency to the process.
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