Application of the Kilimanjaro Concept in Reversing Seawater Intrusion and Securing Water Supply in Zanzibar, Tanzania
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Description of Zanzibar Island
2.2. Water Resources in Zanzibar
2.2.1. Surface Water
2.2.3. Water Balance
2.3. Current Water Management in Zanzibar
2.3.1. Surface Water, Cave Water, and Groundwater
2.3.2. Rainwater Harvesting in Zanzibar
2.3.3. In-Situ RWH Systems
2.3.4. Ex-Situ Runoff Catchment Systems
3. A Framework for Implementing the Kilimanjaro Concept in Zanzibar
3.1. Analysis of Rainwater Water Supply-Demand Relationships
3.1.1. Individual Households
3.1.2. Hotel Industry
3.2. Meeting Water Demands under KC
3.3. Overcoming Seawater Intrusion via KC: The Processes and Preconditions
- Detailed analysis and understanding of the potential for RWH in terms of (i) catchment area and types, (ii) harvestable rainwater and its seasonal and annual variability, and (iii) the physicochemical and microbiological quality of rainwater/runoff;
- Detailed design, costing, and pilot testing of KC, including evaluation of various scenarios as part of the pre-feasibility and feasibility phase;
- Large-scale application and adoption of KC on the island to ensure that the rise in groundwater levels occurs at a scale large enough to achieve the perceived benefits on the whole island;
- A supportive regulatory policy and institutional framework that promotes KC. This may include raising public awareness and the use of legal, economic, and financial instruments, such as incentives/disincentives, to promote RWH systems.
- A need to draw lessons from other similar islands elsewhere (e.g., ), to identify relevant concepts that can complement KC. Such lessons may include: (i) the determination of optimal groundwater abstraction to prevent seawater intrusion, and (ii) the use of GIS spatial tools for identifying the optimal location of runoff infiltration points and RWH systems.
3.4. Appropriate Low-Cost Water Treatment: Fe0 Filters for Zanzibar
3.5. The Economics of KC in Zanzibar
3.6. KC as a Helping Hand for Self-Reliance
- Pre-colonial period (before 1884): Water was sought from natural surface water sources (e.g., rainwater, streams, and wells). Additionally, men provided labor for the construction of water wells under the supervision of traditional rulers (e.g., chiefs).
- Colonial period (1884–1960): African rulers were dethroned and could no longer conceive and implement public water management infrastructures. Water was sought from existing natural surface water sources and still functioning wells.
- 1961–1991: Rural populations contributed to free labor during the construction of water projects and were then passive beneficiaries, getting water free from public standpipes.
- 1991–2000: Cost-sharing was introduced; the population had to pay fees for the same water.
- 2001 to date: Rural population contributes part of the cost for new water projects (free labor or cash). The full responsibility for the planning, construction, operation and management of water projects is transferred to the rural population. Water supply is ideally community-owned, and fees are paid by villagers.
- The piping and storage network can be designed and constructed by Tanzanian engineers. In other words, no foreign funds and experts are required. Water desalination is not needed at all. In some cases, seawater can be blended with rainwater to meet drinking and/or irrigation water standards to lower the size of the engineered storage capacity, and
- After installation, the system is really low-cost as water is transported by gravity and treated by low-cost technologies [68,78,79,80,81]. It is important to insist that water harvesting can be designed on a village-by-village basis. In this case, the municipality coordinates the collection and transport of excess water to larger communities. During periods with low rainfall, water from permanent streams can be captured and used to refill some storage stations;
- The whole system, including water treatment, is based on local resources and skills. This means that, in one or two decades, this water management could be regarded as a “modern” indigenous knowledge of Unguja. The population of Unguja would have to relearn self-reliance on water supply, including adaptation to external changes;
- Safe drinking water is accessible to all communities on the island, including women’s groups and village elders.
4. Concluding Remarks
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Pembe-Ali, Z.; Mwamila, T.B.; Lufingo, M.; Gwenzi, W.; Marwa, J.; Rwiza, M.J.; Lugodisha, I.; Qi, Q.; Noubactep, C. Application of the Kilimanjaro Concept in Reversing Seawater Intrusion and Securing Water Supply in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Water 2021, 13, 2085. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152085
Pembe-Ali Z, Mwamila TB, Lufingo M, Gwenzi W, Marwa J, Rwiza MJ, Lugodisha I, Qi Q, Noubactep C. Application of the Kilimanjaro Concept in Reversing Seawater Intrusion and Securing Water Supply in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Water. 2021; 13(15):2085. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152085Chicago/Turabian Style
Pembe-Ali, Zuleikha, Tulinave Burton Mwamila, Mesia Lufingo, Willis Gwenzi, Janeth Marwa, Mwemezi J. Rwiza, Innocent Lugodisha, Qinwen Qi, and Chicgoua Noubactep. 2021. "Application of the Kilimanjaro Concept in Reversing Seawater Intrusion and Securing Water Supply in Zanzibar, Tanzania" Water 13, no. 15: 2085. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152085