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Article

Monitoring Crop Evapotranspiration and Transpiration/Evaporation Partitioning in a Drip-Irrigated Young Almond Orchard Applying a Two-Source Surface Energy Balance Model

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Department of Applied Physics, Regional Development Institute (IDR), University of Castilla-La Mancha, Av. España, s/n, 02071 Albacete, Spain
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Instituto Técnico Agronómico Provincial (ITAP) and FUNDESCAM, Parque Empresarial Campollano, 2ª Avda. Nº 61, 02007 Albacete, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: José Manuel Mirás-Avalos and Juan Miguel Ramírez-Cuesta
Water 2021, 13(15), 2073; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152073
Received: 7 June 2021 / Revised: 12 July 2021 / Accepted: 28 July 2021 / Published: 29 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management in Woody Crops: Challenges and Opportunities)
Encouraged by the necessity to better understand the water use in this woody crop, a study was carried out in a commercial drip-irrigated young almond orchard to quantify and monitor the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and its partitioning into tree canopy transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (E), to list and analyze single and dual crop coefficients, and to extract relationships between them and the vegetation fractional cover (fc) and remote-sensing-derived vegetation indices (VIs). A Simplified Two-Source Energy Balance (STSEB) model was applied, and the results were compared to ground measurements from a flux tower. This study comprises three consecutive growing seasons from 2017 to 2019, corresponding to Years 2 to 4 after planting. Uncertainties lower than 50 W m−2 were obtained for all terms of the energy balance equation on an instantaneous scale, with average estimation errors of 0.06 mm h−1 and 0.6 mm d−1, for hourly and daily ETc, respectively. Water use for our young almond orchard resulted in average mid-season crop coefficient (Kc mid) values of 0.30, 0.33, and 0.45 for the 2017, 2018, and 2019 growing seasons, corresponding to fc mean values of 0.21, 0.35, and 0.39, respectively. Average daily evapotranspiration for the same periods resulted in 1.7, 2.1, and 3.2 mm d−1. The results entail the possibility of predicting the water use of any age almond orchards by monitoring its biophysical parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: water use; energy fluxes; radiometric temperatures; eddy-covariance; crop coefficients water use; energy fluxes; radiometric temperatures; eddy-covariance; crop coefficients
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez, J.M.; Simón, L.; González-Piqueras, J.; Montoya, F.; López-Urrea, R. Monitoring Crop Evapotranspiration and Transpiration/Evaporation Partitioning in a Drip-Irrigated Young Almond Orchard Applying a Two-Source Surface Energy Balance Model. Water 2021, 13, 2073. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152073

AMA Style

Sánchez JM, Simón L, González-Piqueras J, Montoya F, López-Urrea R. Monitoring Crop Evapotranspiration and Transpiration/Evaporation Partitioning in a Drip-Irrigated Young Almond Orchard Applying a Two-Source Surface Energy Balance Model. Water. 2021; 13(15):2073. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152073

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sánchez, Juan M., Llanos Simón, José González-Piqueras, Francisco Montoya, and Ramón López-Urrea. 2021. "Monitoring Crop Evapotranspiration and Transpiration/Evaporation Partitioning in a Drip-Irrigated Young Almond Orchard Applying a Two-Source Surface Energy Balance Model" Water 13, no. 15: 2073. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152073

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