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Review

Insights into the Use of Phytoremediation Processes for the Removal of Organic Micropollutants from Water and Wastewater; A Review

1
Doctoral School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Bialystok, 1K Ciołkowskiego Str., 15-245 Białystok, Poland
2
Department of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K Str., 15-245 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alicia Ronda Gálvez
Water 2021, 13(15), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152065
Received: 3 June 2021 / Revised: 22 July 2021 / Accepted: 26 July 2021 / Published: 29 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Occurrence and Removal of Emerging Pollutants)
Greater awareness of micropollutants present in water and wastewater motivates the search for effective methods of their neutralization. Although their concentration in waters is measured in micro- and nanograms per liter, even at those levels, they may cause serious health consequences for different organisms, including harmful effects on the functioning of the endocrine system of vertebrates. Traditional methods of wastewater treatment, especially biological methods used in municipal wastewater treatment plants, are not sufficiently effective in removing these compounds, which results in their presence in natural waters. The growing interest in phytoremediation using constructed wetlands as a method of wastewater treatment or polishing indicates a need for the evaluation of this process in the context of micropollutant removal. Therefore, the present work presents a systematic review of the effectiveness in the removal of micropollutants from polluted waters by processes based on plant used. The article also analyzes issues related to the impact of micropollutants on the physiological processes of plants as well as changes in general indicators of pollution caused by contact of wastewater with plants. Additionally, it is also the first review of the literature that focuses strictly on the removal of micropollutants through the use of constructed wetlands. View Full-Text
Keywords: emerging contaminants; endocrine disrupting compounds; phytoremediation; constructed wetlands; removal efficiency emerging contaminants; endocrine disrupting compounds; phytoremediation; constructed wetlands; removal efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Polińska, W.; Kotowska, U.; Kiejza, D.; Karpińska, J. Insights into the Use of Phytoremediation Processes for the Removal of Organic Micropollutants from Water and Wastewater; A Review. Water 2021, 13, 2065. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152065

AMA Style

Polińska W, Kotowska U, Kiejza D, Karpińska J. Insights into the Use of Phytoremediation Processes for the Removal of Organic Micropollutants from Water and Wastewater; A Review. Water. 2021; 13(15):2065. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152065

Chicago/Turabian Style

Polińska, Weronika, Urszula Kotowska, Dariusz Kiejza, and Joanna Karpińska. 2021. "Insights into the Use of Phytoremediation Processes for the Removal of Organic Micropollutants from Water and Wastewater; A Review" Water 13, no. 15: 2065. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152065

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