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Article

Spatial and Long-Term Temporal Changes in Water Quality Dynamics of the Tonle Sap Ecosystem

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Wonders of the Mekong Project, c/o Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Fisheries Administration, No. 186 Preah Norodom Blvd, Khan Chamkar Morn, Phnom Penh 12300, Cambodia
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Royal University of Phnom Penh, Russian Boulevard, Phnom Penh 12000, Cambodia
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Graduate School, Chea Sim University of Kamchaymear, No. 157 Preah Norodom Blvd, Khan Chamkarmon, Phnom Penh 12300, Cambodia
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Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Fisheries Administration, No. 186 Preah Norodom Blvd., P.O. Box 582, Phnom Penh 12300, Cambodia
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Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
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Department of Biology, Global Water Center, University of Nevada, 1664 N. Virginia Street, Reno, NV 89557, USA
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Department of Watershed Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA
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W.A. Franke College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xing Fang
Water 2021, 13(15), 2059; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152059
Received: 7 May 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 16 July 2021 / Published: 29 July 2021
Tonle Sap lake-river floodplain ecosystem (TSE) is one of the world’s most productive freshwater systems. Changes in hydrology, climate, population density, and land use influence water quality in this system. We investigated long term water quality dynamics (22 years) in space and time and identified potential changes in nutrient limitation based on nutrient ratios of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. Water quality was assessed at five sites highlighting the dynamics in wet and dry seasons. Predictors of water quality included watershed land use, climate, population, and water level. Most water quality parameters varied across TSE, except pH and nitrate that remained constant at all sites. In the last decade, there is a change in the chemical nutrient ratio suggesting that nitrogen may be the primary limiting nutrient across the system. Water quality was strongly affected by development in the watershed i.e., flooded forest loss, climatic variation, population growth, and change in water level. Seasonal variations of water quality constituents were driven by precipitation and hydrology, notably the Mekong’s distinct seasonal flood pulse. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mekong River Basin; Tonle Sap Lake; Tonle Sap River; hydroclimate; tropical lake; Cambodia Mekong River Basin; Tonle Sap Lake; Tonle Sap River; hydroclimate; tropical lake; Cambodia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soum, S.; Ngor, P.B.; Dilts, T.E.; Lohani, S.; Kelson, S.; Null, S.E.; Tromboni, F.; Hogan, Z.S.; Chan, B.; Chandra, S. Spatial and Long-Term Temporal Changes in Water Quality Dynamics of the Tonle Sap Ecosystem. Water 2021, 13, 2059. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152059

AMA Style

Soum S, Ngor PB, Dilts TE, Lohani S, Kelson S, Null SE, Tromboni F, Hogan ZS, Chan B, Chandra S. Spatial and Long-Term Temporal Changes in Water Quality Dynamics of the Tonle Sap Ecosystem. Water. 2021; 13(15):2059. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152059

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soum, Savoeurn, Peng B. Ngor, Thomas E. Dilts, Sapana Lohani, Suzanne Kelson, Sarah E. Null, Flavia Tromboni, Zeb S. Hogan, Bunyeth Chan, and Sudeep Chandra. 2021. "Spatial and Long-Term Temporal Changes in Water Quality Dynamics of the Tonle Sap Ecosystem" Water 13, no. 15: 2059. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152059

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