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Article

Degradation of Diclofenac in Urine by Electro-Permanganate Process Driven by Microbial Fuel Cells

1
National Centre for International Research of Low-carbon and Green Buildings, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
2
School of Water Conservancy and Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, China
3
School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007, China
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first authors.
Academic Editors: Jiangyong Hu, Say Leong Ong, Wenjun Sun and Weiling Sun
Water 2021, 13(15), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152047
Received: 28 June 2021 / Revised: 21 July 2021 / Accepted: 22 July 2021 / Published: 27 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AOP Processes for Organics Removal in Water and Wastewater)
A novel microbial fuel cell-assisted electro-permanganate process (MFC-PM) was proposed for enhanced diclofenac degradation compared to that of the permanganate oxidation process. By utilizing eco-friendly bio-electricity in situ, the MFC-PM process could activate the simultaneous anodic biological metabolism of urea and the cathodic electro-permanganate process. Density functional analysis and experimental evidence revealed the reactive manganese species (Mn(VII)aq, Mn(VI)aq, Mn(V)aq, and Mn(III)aq), generated via single electron transfer, contributed to diclofenac degradation in the cathodic chamber. The sites of diclofenac with a high Fukui index were preferable to be attacked by reactive manganese species, and diclofenac degradation was mainly accomplished through the ring hydroxylation, ring opening, and decarboxylation processes. Biological detection revealed clostridia were the primary electron donor in the anode chamber in an anaerobic environment. Furthermore, maximum output power density of 1.49 W m−3 and the optimal removal of 94.75% diclofenac were obtained within 20 min under the conditions of pH = 3.0, [DCF]0 = 60 µM, and [PM]0 = 30 µM. Diclofenac removal efficiency increased with external resistance, higher PM dosage, and lower catholyte pH. In addition, the MFC-PM process displayed excellent applicability in urine and other background substances. The MFC-PM process provided an efficient and energy-free bio-electricity catalytic permanganate oxidation technology for enhancing diclofenac degradation. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial fuel cells; electro-permanganate; reactive manganese species; urine treatment microbial fuel cells; electro-permanganate; reactive manganese species; urine treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Duanmu, P.; Zheng, L.; Hasson, S.U.; Baldwin, A.; Wong, I.; Zhao, C. Degradation of Diclofenac in Urine by Electro-Permanganate Process Driven by Microbial Fuel Cells. Water 2021, 13, 2047. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152047

AMA Style

Wang X, Wang Y, Zhang J, Duanmu P, Zheng L, Hasson SU, Baldwin A, Wong I, Zhao C. Degradation of Diclofenac in Urine by Electro-Permanganate Process Driven by Microbial Fuel Cells. Water. 2021; 13(15):2047. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152047

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Xuxu, Ying Wang, Jian Zhang, Pengbo Duanmu, Liushi Zheng, Shabi U. Hasson, Andrew Baldwin, Irene Wong, and Chun Zhao. 2021. "Degradation of Diclofenac in Urine by Electro-Permanganate Process Driven by Microbial Fuel Cells" Water 13, no. 15: 2047. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152047

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