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Article

Modeling Water-Induced Base Particle Migration in Loaded Granular Filters Using Discrete Element Method

1
School of Civil and Hydraulics Engineering, University of Ningxia, Yinchuan 750021, China
2
Institue of Solid Mechanics, School of Physics and Elecronic-Electrical Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China
3
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Punjab 54890, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu Huang
Water 2021, 13(14), 1976; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141976
Received: 21 June 2021 / Revised: 12 July 2021 / Accepted: 15 July 2021 / Published: 19 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
Results are reported from a series of filtration tests simulated using coupled computational fluid dynamics and the discrete element method (CCFD-DEM) to investigate the factors controlling the mechanism of base particle erosion and their subsequent capture in loaded granular filters. Apart from geometrical factors such as particle and void sizes, the filter effectiveness was found to be controlled by the magnitudes of the hydraulic gradients and the effective stresses. The results of numerical simulations revealed that the base soils exhibit significant stress reduction that reduces further due to seepage, and the base particles migrate into the filter, bearing very low effective stresses (i.e., localized piping in base soil). Based on the limit equilibrium of hydraulic and mechanical constraints, a linear hydromechanical model has been proposed that governs the migration and capture of base particles in the filter (i.e., filter effectiveness avoiding piping) for cases simulated in this study. Nevertheless, the proposed model agrees closely with the simulation results of this study and those adopted from other published works, thereby showing a reasonable possibility of using the proposed model as a measure of retention capacity of loaded protective filters. View Full-Text
Keywords: granular filters; effective stresses; filter effectiveness; particle erosion granular filters; effective stresses; filter effectiveness; particle erosion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, G.; Israr, J.; Ma, W.; Wang, H. Modeling Water-Induced Base Particle Migration in Loaded Granular Filters Using Discrete Element Method. Water 2021, 13, 1976. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141976

AMA Style

Zhang G, Israr J, Ma W, Wang H. Modeling Water-Induced Base Particle Migration in Loaded Granular Filters Using Discrete Element Method. Water. 2021; 13(14):1976. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141976

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Gang, Jahanzaib Israr, Wenguo Ma, and Hongyu Wang. 2021. "Modeling Water-Induced Base Particle Migration in Loaded Granular Filters Using Discrete Element Method" Water 13, no. 14: 1976. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141976

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