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Article

Investigating Groundwater Condition and Seawater Intrusion Status in Coastal Aquifer Systems of Eastern India

1
AgFE Department, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India
2
WRD&M Department, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thomas M. Missimer and Maurizio Barbieri
Water 2021, 13(14), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141952
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 28 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 July 2021 / Published: 16 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Flow Modeling in Coastal Aquifers)
Providing sustainable water supply for domestic needs and irrigated agriculture is one of the most significant challenges for the current century. This challenge is more daunting in coastal regions. Groundwater plays a pivotal role in addressing this challenge and hence, it is under growing stress in several parts of the world. To address this challenge, a proper understanding of groundwater characteristics in an area is essential. In this study, spatio-temporal analyses of pre-monsoon and post-monsoon groundwater levels of two coastal aquifer systems (upper leaky confined and underlying confined) were carried out in Purba Medinipur District, West Bengal, India. Trend analysis of seasonal groundwater levels of the two aquifers systems was also performed using Mann-Kendall test, Linear Regression test, and Innovative Trend test. Finally, the status of seawater intrusion in the two aquifers was evaluated using available groundwater-quality data of Chloride (Cl) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). Considerable spatial and temporal variability was found in the seasonal groundwater levels of the two aquifers. Further, decreasing trends were spotted in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon groundwater-level time series of the leaky confined and confined aquifers, except pre-monsoon groundwater levels in Contai-I and Deshpran blocks, and the post-monsoon groundwater level in Ramnagar-I block for the leaky confined aquifer. The leaky confined aquifer in Contai-I, Contai-III, and Deshpran blocks and the confined aquifer in Nandigram-I and Nandigram-II blocks are vulnerable to seawater intrusion. There is an urgent need for the real-time monitoring of groundwater levels and groundwater quality in both the aquifer systems, which can ensure efficient management of coastal groundwater reserves. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater fluctuation; spatio-temporal variability; trend analysis; seawater intrusion; coastal aquifers groundwater fluctuation; spatio-temporal variability; trend analysis; seawater intrusion; coastal aquifers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Halder, S.; Dhal, L.; Jha, M.K. Investigating Groundwater Condition and Seawater Intrusion Status in Coastal Aquifer Systems of Eastern India. Water 2021, 13, 1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141952

AMA Style

Halder S, Dhal L, Jha MK. Investigating Groundwater Condition and Seawater Intrusion Status in Coastal Aquifer Systems of Eastern India. Water. 2021; 13(14):1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141952

Chicago/Turabian Style

Halder, Subrata, Lingaraj Dhal, and Madan K. Jha 2021. "Investigating Groundwater Condition and Seawater Intrusion Status in Coastal Aquifer Systems of Eastern India" Water 13, no. 14: 1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141952

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