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Article

Effects of Cattails and Hydraulic Loading on Heavy Metal Removal from Closed Mine Drainage by Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetlands

1
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
2
Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, Toranomon Twin Building 2-10-1 Toranomon, Tokyo 105-0001, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christos S. Akratos and Laura Bulgariu
Water 2021, 13(14), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141937
Received: 29 May 2021 / Revised: 28 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 July 2021 / Published: 13 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
This study demonstrated heavy metal removal from neutral mine drainage of a closed mine in Kyoto prefecture in pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs). The CWs filled with loamy soil and limestone were unplanted or planted with cattails. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the CWs was shortened gradually from 3.8 days to 1.2 days during 3.5 months of operation. A short HRT of 1.2 days in the CWs was sufficient to achieve the effluent standard for Cd (0.03 mg/L). The unplanted and the cattail-planted CWs reduced the average concentrations of Cd from 0.031 to 0.01 and 0.005 mg/L, Zn from 0.52 to 0.14 and 0.08 mg/L, Cu from 0.07 to 0.04 and 0.03 mg/L, and As from 0.011 to 0.006 and 0.006 mg/L, respectively. Heavy metals were removed mainly by adsorption to the soil in both CWs. The biological concentration factors in cattails were over 2 for Cd, Zn, and Cu. The translocation factors of cattails for all metals were 0.5–0.81. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) belonging to Deltaproteobacteria were detected only from soil in the planted CW. Although cattails were a minor sink, the plants contributed to metal removal by rhizofiltration and incubation of SRB, possibly producing sulfide precipitates in the rhizosphere. View Full-Text
Keywords: emergent plant; heavy metal; mine wastewater; passive treatment; sulfate-reducing bacteria emergent plant; heavy metal; mine wastewater; passive treatment; sulfate-reducing bacteria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, T.T.; Soda, S.; Kanayama, A.; Hamai, T. Effects of Cattails and Hydraulic Loading on Heavy Metal Removal from Closed Mine Drainage by Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetlands. Water 2021, 13, 1937. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141937

AMA Style

Nguyen TT, Soda S, Kanayama A, Hamai T. Effects of Cattails and Hydraulic Loading on Heavy Metal Removal from Closed Mine Drainage by Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetlands. Water. 2021; 13(14):1937. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141937

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nguyen, Thuong T., Satoshi Soda, Akihiro Kanayama, and Takaya Hamai. 2021. "Effects of Cattails and Hydraulic Loading on Heavy Metal Removal from Closed Mine Drainage by Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetlands" Water 13, no. 14: 1937. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141937

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