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Article

Three-Dimensional Electrochemical Oxidation of Recalcitrant Dye Using Green Iron Microparticles

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Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain P.O. Box 15551, United Arab Emirates
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA
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Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001, India
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Minghao Sui
Water 2021, 13(14), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141925
Received: 28 May 2021 / Revised: 27 June 2021 / Accepted: 6 July 2021 / Published: 12 July 2021
This study evaluated the effect of the addition of green iron microparticles (Fe-MPs) as a three-dimensional electrode on efficiency of the electrochemical oxidation process. Polyphenols present in green tea extract act as a reducing and capping agent during green synthesis of the Fe-MPs. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis indicates that the average size of particles is 100 µm, with about ~47 wt % of Fe in oxide form. The addition of Fe-MPs as a third electrode in the conventional electro-oxidation (EO) process converts it into a three-dimensional (3D) catalytic EO process to enhance the decolorization efficiency. Green synthesized Fe-MPs function as several microelectrodes in the process. Adsorption study indicated that only 12% of decolorization is due to adsorption on the Fe-MPs surface. Moreover, improvement in generation of hydroxyl radicals was validated by applying dimethyl sulfoxide as scavenger, and it was observed that generation of hydroxyl radicals decreased with the addition of DMSO. Results showed that decolorization efficiency increased in the 3D EO process with Fe-MPs by about 24% compared to the conventional 2D process without the Fe-MPs dosing, and initial pH as well as the Fe-MPs dose has a significant effect on decolorization efficiency during the 3D process. It is observed that reaction works better at highly acidic pH (2-4), and decolorization efficiency improved with higher doses of Fe-MPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical oxidation; green synthesis; iron microparticles; decolorization electrochemical oxidation; green synthesis; iron microparticles; decolorization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kothari, M.S.; Aly Hassan, A.; Shah, K.A. Three-Dimensional Electrochemical Oxidation of Recalcitrant Dye Using Green Iron Microparticles. Water 2021, 13, 1925. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141925

AMA Style

Kothari MS, Aly Hassan A, Shah KA. Three-Dimensional Electrochemical Oxidation of Recalcitrant Dye Using Green Iron Microparticles. Water. 2021; 13(14):1925. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141925

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kothari, Manisha S., Ashraf Aly Hassan, and Kosha A. Shah 2021. "Three-Dimensional Electrochemical Oxidation of Recalcitrant Dye Using Green Iron Microparticles" Water 13, no. 14: 1925. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141925

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