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Agricultural Effects on Streams and Rivers: A Western USA Focus

1
Amnis Opes Institute, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA
2
Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
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2909 Boulevard Road Southeast, Olympia, WA 98501, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pedro Segurado, Paulo Branco and Maria Teresa Ferreira
Water 2021, 13(14), 1901; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141901
Received: 17 May 2021 / Revised: 3 July 2021 / Accepted: 5 July 2021 / Published: 9 July 2021
Globally, croplands and rangelands are major land uses and they have altered lands and waters for millennia. This continues to be the case throughout the USA, despite substantial improvements in treating wastewaters from point sources—versus non-point (diffuse) sources. Poor macroinvertebrate assemblage condition occurs in 30% of conterminous USA streams and rivers; poor fish assemblage condition occurs in 26%. The risk of poor fish assemblage condition was most strongly associated with excess nutrients, salinity and sedimentation and impaired riparian woody vegetation. Although the Clean Water Act was passed to restore and maintain the integrity of USA waters, that will be impossible without controlling agricultural pollution. Likewise, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act was enacted to protect the natural condition of public lands and waters, including fish habitat, but it has failed to curtail the sacred cows of livestock grazing. Although progress has been slow and spotty, promising results have been obtained from basin and watershed planning and riparian zone protections. View Full-Text
Keywords: USA; fish assemblages; macroinvertebrate assemblages; bird assemblages; croplands; rangelands USA; fish assemblages; macroinvertebrate assemblages; bird assemblages; croplands; rangelands
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hughes, R.M.; Vadas, R.L., Jr. Agricultural Effects on Streams and Rivers: A Western USA Focus. Water 2021, 13, 1901. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141901

AMA Style

Hughes RM, Vadas RL Jr.. Agricultural Effects on Streams and Rivers: A Western USA Focus. Water. 2021; 13(14):1901. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141901

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hughes, Robert M., and Robert L. Vadas Jr. 2021. "Agricultural Effects on Streams and Rivers: A Western USA Focus" Water 13, no. 14: 1901. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141901

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