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The Effect of the Effluent from a Small-Scale Conventional Wastewater Treatment Plant Treating Municipal Wastewater on the Composition and Abundance of the Microbial Community, Antibiotic Resistome, and Pathogens in the Sediment and Water of a Receiving Stream
Article

Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Pharmaceutical Wastewaters

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Augustine University Ilara-Epe, Epe 106101, Lagos State, Nigeria
2
Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 200284, Oyo State, Nigeria
3
U.S. Salinity Laboratory, USDA-ARS, 450 West Big Springs Road, Riverside, CA 92507, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Helvi Heinonen-Tanski and Luiza Campos
Water 2021, 13(13), 1731; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131731
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 18 June 2021 / Accepted: 20 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
Pharmaceutical wastewaters are recognized as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), and also as hotspots for their horizontal gene transfer (HGT) using mobile genetic elements. Our study employed the use of PCR analysis of metagenomic DNA samples obtained from four pharmaceutical wastewaters using known primers to study the prevalence of thirty-six ARGs and four MGEs active against the commonly used antibiotics in Nigeria. The ARGs most frequently detected from the metagenomic DNA samples in each of the antibiotic classes under study include tetracycline [tet(G)], aminoglycoside [aadA, strA and strB], chloramphenicol [catA1], sulphonamides [sulI and sulII], and β-lactams and penicillins [blaOXA]. The ARGs showed a 100% prevalence in their various environmental sources. The pharmaceutical facility PFIV showed the highest concentration of ARGs in this study. The highest concentration for MGEs was shown by pharmaceutical facility PFIII, positive for intl1, intl2, and IFS genes. This study highlights the wide distribution of ARGs to the antibiotics tested in the wastewater, making pharmaceutical wastewater reservoirs of ARGs which could potentially be transferred from commensal microorganisms to human pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: metagenomics; pharmaceutical wastewater; metagenomic DNA; Antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs); mobile genetic elements (MGEs) metagenomics; pharmaceutical wastewater; metagenomic DNA; Antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs); mobile genetic elements (MGEs)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Obayiuwana, A.; Ogunjobi, A.; Ibekwe, A. Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Pharmaceutical Wastewaters. Water 2021, 13, 1731. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131731

AMA Style

Obayiuwana A, Ogunjobi A, Ibekwe A. Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Pharmaceutical Wastewaters. Water. 2021; 13(13):1731. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131731

Chicago/Turabian Style

Obayiuwana, Amarachukwu, Adeniyi Ogunjobi, and Abasiofiok Ibekwe. 2021. "Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Pharmaceutical Wastewaters" Water 13, no. 13: 1731. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131731

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