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Article

A Comparative Study of the Effects of the 1872 Storm and Coastal Flood Risk Management in Denmark, Germany, and Sweden

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Division of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, John Ericssons väg 1, 223 63 Lund, Sweden
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Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
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Schleswig-Holstein Ministry of Energy Transition, Agriculture, Environment, Nature and Digitization, Mercatorstrasse 3-5, 24105 Kiel, Germany
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Ecologic Institute, Pfalzburgerstraße 43-44, 10717 Berlin, Germany
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Research Institute for Water and Environment, University of Siegen, Paul-Bonatz-Str. 9-11, 57076 Siegen, Germany
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The Emergency and Risk Management Program, University College Copenhagen, Sigurdsgade 26, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
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Environmental Policy Research Centre, Freie Universität Berlin, Ihnestraße 22, 14195 Berlin, Germany
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Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
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Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock, Germany
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Kystdirektoratet, Højbovej 1, 7620 Lemvig, Denmark
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luca Martinelli
Water 2021, 13(12), 1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121697
Received: 4 May 2021 / Revised: 13 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 18 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
From November 12th to 13th in 1872, an extreme coastal flood event occurred in the south Baltic Sea. An unusual combination of winds created a storm surge reaching up to 3.5 m above mean sea level, which is more than a meter higher than all other observations over the past 200 years. On the Danish, German, and Swedish coasts, about 300 people lost their lives. The consequences of the storm in Denmark and Germany were more severe than in Sweden, with significantly larger destruction and higher numbers of casualties. In Denmark and Germany, the 1872 storm has been more extensively documented and remembered and still influences local and regional risk awareness. A comparative study indicates that the collective memory of the 1872 storm is related to the background knowledge about floods, the damage extent, and the response to the storm. Flood marks and dikes help to remember the events. In general, coastal flood defence is to the largest degree implemented in the affected areas in Germany, followed by Denmark, and is almost absent in Sweden, corresponding to the extent of the collective memory of the 1872 storm. Within the affected countries, there is local variability of flood risk awareness associated with the collective memory of the storm. Also, the economic dependency on flood-prone areas and conflicting interests with the tourism industry have influence on flood protection decisions. The processes of climate change adaptation and implementation of the EU Floods Directive are slowly removing these differences in flood risk management approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: 1872 storm; collective memory; historical storms; flood risk management 1872 storm; collective memory; historical storms; flood risk management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hallin, C.; Hofstede, J.L.A.; Martinez, G.; Jensen, J.; Baron, N.; Heimann, T.; Kroon, A.; Arns, A.; Almström, B.; Sørensen, P.; Larson, M. A Comparative Study of the Effects of the 1872 Storm and Coastal Flood Risk Management in Denmark, Germany, and Sweden. Water 2021, 13, 1697. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121697

AMA Style

Hallin C, Hofstede JLA, Martinez G, Jensen J, Baron N, Heimann T, Kroon A, Arns A, Almström B, Sørensen P, Larson M. A Comparative Study of the Effects of the 1872 Storm and Coastal Flood Risk Management in Denmark, Germany, and Sweden. Water. 2021; 13(12):1697. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121697

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hallin, Caroline, Jacobus L.A. Hofstede, Grit Martinez, Jürgen Jensen, Nina Baron, Thorsten Heimann, Aart Kroon, Arne Arns, Björn Almström, Per Sørensen, and Magnus Larson. 2021. "A Comparative Study of the Effects of the 1872 Storm and Coastal Flood Risk Management in Denmark, Germany, and Sweden" Water 13, no. 12: 1697. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121697

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