Nuclear desalination concept and implementation spanning 50 years are recognized as an economical viable option for water and electricity production but could not receive wider applications. This is due to various factors, in addition to technical design parameters, other factors, such as social, economic, and environmental issues, need to be considered. For this purpose, the current studies start with performing a critical and up-to-date literature review on previous investigations in the field of nuclear reactors and integrated nuclear power with desalination plants with a specific focus on performance criteria, technical specifications, etc. Reviewing and compiling the most updated technical specifications, cost estimations, and environmental data related to nuclear power and desalination plants are also important steps. Previous studies show a special focus on other important issues on nuclear desalination characteristics in countries including Saudi Arabia, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, India, and Kuwait. This work presents a concise review of previous works on the relevancy of other issues, such as economic, environmental, and social, associated with the use of nuclear energy in power generation and fresh water production. Preliminary assessment of possible hybrid configurations of nuclear and desalination technologies is developed and assessed by a computational program. Both operating and capital cost of the integrated plants are calculated. The simulation model is then extended to compare with other heating reactors as well for the verification analysis. The results obtained from comparative assessment depicts the accuracy of the simulation model used for preliminary assessment of the integrated nuclear desalination option. The main objective of the research is to assess the nuclear desalination plant development in terms of social, economic and environmental aspects. The results will pave the way for countries interested in developing nuclear desalination plants.
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