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Article

Influence of Substrate Material on Flow in Freezing Water Droplets—An Experimental Study

Division of Fluid and Experimental Mechanics, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden
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Academic Editor: Xiangyu Hu
Water 2021, 13(12), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121628
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 9 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
Freezing water droplets are a natural phenomenon that occurs regularly in the Arctic climate. It affects areas such as aircrafts, wind turbine blades and roads, where it can be a safety issue. To further scrutinize the freezing process, the main objective of this paper is to experimentally examine the influence of substrate material on the internal flow of a water droplet. The secondary goal is to reduce uncertainties in the freezing process by decreasing the randomness of the droplet size and form by introducing a groove in the substrate material. Copper, aluminium and steel was chosen due to their differences in thermal conductivities. Measurements were performed with Particle Image Velociometry (PIV) to be able to analyse the velocity field inside the droplet during the freezing process. During the investigation for the secondary goal, it could be seen that by introducing a groove in the substrate material, the contact radius could be controlled with a standard deviation of 0.85%. For the main objective, the velocity profile was investigated during different stages of the freezing process. Five points along the symmetry line of the droplet were compared and copper, which also has the highest thermal conductivity, showed the highest internal velocity. The difference between aluminium and steel was in their turn more difficult to distinguish, since the maximum velocity switched between the two materials along the symmetry line. View Full-Text
Keywords: freezing; internal flow; water droplet; Marangoni flow; PIV freezing; internal flow; water droplet; Marangoni flow; PIV
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fagerström, E.; Ljung, A.-L.; Karlsson, L.; Lycksam, H. Influence of Substrate Material on Flow in Freezing Water Droplets—An Experimental Study. Water 2021, 13, 1628. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121628

AMA Style

Fagerström E, Ljung A-L, Karlsson L, Lycksam H. Influence of Substrate Material on Flow in Freezing Water Droplets—An Experimental Study. Water. 2021; 13(12):1628. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121628

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fagerström, Erik, Anna-Lena Ljung, Linn Karlsson, and Henrik Lycksam. 2021. "Influence of Substrate Material on Flow in Freezing Water Droplets—An Experimental Study" Water 13, no. 12: 1628. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121628

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