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A Decrease in the Regulatory Effect of Snow-Related Phenomena in Spanish Mountain Areas Due to Climate Change
Article

Seasonal Variability of Snow Density in the Spanish Pyrenees

1
Department of Geological and Geotechnical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46014 Valencia, Spain
2
Independent Researcher, 46014 Valencia, Spain
3
Research Centre PEGASO, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46014 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Mimikou
Water 2021, 13(11), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111598
Received: 1 April 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 3 June 2021 / Published: 7 June 2021
Spanish latitudes and meteorological conditions cause the snow phenomena to mainly take place in mountainous areas, playing a key role in water resource management, with the Pyrenees as one of the most important and best monitored areas. Based on the most significant dataset of snow density (SDEN) in the Spanish Pyrenees for on-site manual samples and automatic measurements, in this study, single and multiple linear regression models are evaluated that relate SDEN with intra-annual time dependence and other drivers such as the seasonal accumulated precipitation, 7-day average temperatures, snow depth (SD) and elevation. The seasonal accumulated precipitation presented a more dominant influence than daily precipitation, usually being the second most dominant SDEN driver, followed by temperature. Average temperatures showed the best fitting to SDEN. The results showed similar densification rates ranging widely from 0.7 × 103 kg/L/day to 2 × 103 kg/L/day without showing a spatial pattern. The densification rate for the set of manual samples was set to 1.2 kg/L/day, very similar to the set of automatic measurements (1.3 kg/L/day). The results increase knowledge on SDEN in the Pyrenees. The SDEN regression models that are given in this work may allow us, in the future, to estimate SDEN, and consequently Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), using an economical and extensive SD and meteorological network, although the high spatial variability that has been found must be regarded. Estimating a relationship between SDEN and several climate drivers enables us to take into account the impact of climate variability on SDEN. View Full-Text
Keywords: snow density; Spanish Pyrenees; ERHIN program; water equivalent; climate variability snow density; Spanish Pyrenees; ERHIN program; water equivalent; climate variability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lastrada, E.; Cobos, G.; Garzón-Roca, J.; Torrijo, F.J. Seasonal Variability of Snow Density in the Spanish Pyrenees. Water 2021, 13, 1598. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111598

AMA Style

Lastrada E, Cobos G, Garzón-Roca J, Torrijo FJ. Seasonal Variability of Snow Density in the Spanish Pyrenees. Water. 2021; 13(11):1598. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111598

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lastrada, Eduardo, Guillermo Cobos, Julio Garzón-Roca, and F. J. Torrijo 2021. "Seasonal Variability of Snow Density in the Spanish Pyrenees" Water 13, no. 11: 1598. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111598

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