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Article

Woven-Fiber Microfiltration (WFMF) and Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes (UV LEDs) for Treating Wastewater and Septic Tank Effluent

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School of Environment, Resources, and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, 58 Moo 9, Km. 42, Paholyothin Highway, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
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QAEHS,—Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia
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Departamento de Ingeniería, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 15102, Peru
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Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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Sustainability Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Simona Consoli and Giuseppe Luigi Cirelli
Water 2021, 13(11), 1564; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111564
Received: 1 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
Decentralized wastewater treatment systems enable wastewater to be treated at the source for cleaner discharge into the environment, protecting public health while allowing for reuse for agricultural and other purposes. This study, conducted in Thailand, investigated a decentralized wastewater treatment system incorporating a physical and photochemical process. Domestic wastewater from a university campus and conventional septic tank effluent from a small community were filtered through a woven-fiber microfiltration (WFMF) membrane as pretreatment for ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. In domestic wastewater, WFMF reduced TSS (by 79.8%), turbidity (76.5%), COD (38.5%), and NO3 (41.4%), meeting Thailand irrigation standards for every parameter except BOD. In septic tank effluent, it did not meet Thailand irrigation standards, but reduced TSS (by 77.9%), COD (37.6%), and TKN (13.5%). Bacteria (total coliform and Escherichia coli) and viruses (MS2 bacteriophage) passing through the membrane were disinfected by flow-through UV reactors containing either a low-pressure mercury lamp or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting an average peak wavelength of 276 nm. Despite challenging and variable water quality conditions (2% < UVT < 88%), disinfection was predictable across water types and flow rates for both UV sources using combined variable modeling, which enabled us to estimate log inactivation of other microorganisms. Following UV disinfection, wastewater quality met the WHO standards for unrestricted irrigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: decentralized; domestic wastewater; septic tank effluent; woven membrane; UV validation; combined variable modelling; LMIC; MS2 bacteriophage decentralized; domestic wastewater; septic tank effluent; woven membrane; UV validation; combined variable modelling; LMIC; MS2 bacteriophage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beck, S.E.; Suwan, P.; Rathnayeke, T.; Nguyen, T.M.H.; Huanambal-Sovero, V.A.; Boonyapalanant, B.; Hull, N.M.; Koottatep, T. Woven-Fiber Microfiltration (WFMF) and Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes (UV LEDs) for Treating Wastewater and Septic Tank Effluent. Water 2021, 13, 1564. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111564

AMA Style

Beck SE, Suwan P, Rathnayeke T, Nguyen TMH, Huanambal-Sovero VA, Boonyapalanant B, Hull NM, Koottatep T. Woven-Fiber Microfiltration (WFMF) and Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes (UV LEDs) for Treating Wastewater and Septic Tank Effluent. Water. 2021; 13(11):1564. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111564

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beck, Sara E., Poonyanooch Suwan, Thusitha Rathnayeke, Thi M.H. Nguyen, Victor A. Huanambal-Sovero, Boonmee Boonyapalanant, Natalie M. Hull, and Thammarat Koottatep. 2021. "Woven-Fiber Microfiltration (WFMF) and Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes (UV LEDs) for Treating Wastewater and Septic Tank Effluent" Water 13, no. 11: 1564. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111564

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