Next Article in Journal
Life Cycle Assessment of the Mesophilic, Thermophilic, and Temperature-Phased Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge
Next Article in Special Issue
Woven-Fiber Microfiltration (WFMF) and Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes (UV LEDs) for Treating Wastewater and Septic Tank Effluent
Previous Article in Journal
An Ensemble Flow Forecast Method Based on Autoregressive Model and Hydrological Uncertainty Processer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Constructed Wetlands as Sustainable Technology for the Treatment and Reuse of the First-Flush Stormwater in Agriculture—A Case Study in Sicily (Italy)
Article

Innovative Multistage Constructed Wetland for Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Agriculture in Senegal

1
Department of Biology, Health and Environment, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII s/n, 08012 Barcelona, Spain
2
Nature-based Solutions for Sustainable Development Area, Solidarity Foundation University of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Melcior de Palau, 140, 08014 Barcelona, Spain
3
SEDAQUA, Laboratory of Chemical-Physical and Chemical Engineering I, University of A Coruña, Campus of A Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruña, Spain
4
Laboratory of Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences, Applied Sciences and Technologies Training and Research Unit, Gaston Berger University Saint-Louis, Saint Louis BP 234, Senegal
5
Geography Department, Gaston Berger University Saint-Louis, Saint Louis BP 234, Senegal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3139; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113139
Received: 8 October 2020 / Revised: 4 November 2020 / Accepted: 4 November 2020 / Published: 9 November 2020
This paper reports on the performance of using a multistage constructed wetland (CW) to treat municipal raw wastewater and an analysis of its suitability for agricultural irrigation. The pilot plant consists of two stages of vertical flow CWs plus one stage of a horizontal CW built in 2018 with different local materials at the Gaston Berger University Campus, Saint Louis (Senegal). Each CW stage is composed of several filters with different type of media (silex, granite, or river gravel), filtering media depths, and macrophytes (Phragmites and Typha). The physicochemical and microbiological indicators were monitored over six months at each bed inlet and outlet to evaluate the efficiency and achievements of the Senegalese, European, and WHO regulations/recommendations for disposal or reuse in irrigation. This study demonstrates the viability of this new multistage CW design to treat raw municipal wastewater and produce an effluent of good quality suitable for reuse in agriculture. The removal of organic matter, suspended solids, and nutrients was very high (>95% for SS, BOD5 and N-NH4+, >90% for COD and P-PO43−), as was the reduction of microbiological indicators (fecal coliform reduction >5 log units and helminth egg removal of 100%). First, trends related to the influence of design (the type of gravel, filter depth, and type of macrophyte), operational modes, and the CW treatment efficiency were determined. The use of non-crushed gravel and Typha spp. seemed to provide better removal rates. On the contrary, no differences were found between the use of silex or granite gravel. For the studied Senegalese conditions under dry and hot climates, the preliminary results indicate that no resting periods are necessary for vertical flow CWs (VFCWs), thus resulting in a reduction in construction and operation costs. The main outcome of our study is evidence that multistage CWs can provide robust, cost-effective treatments, as well as allow for safe water reuse, which is imperative in areas with severe water scarcity and endemic microbiological waterborne diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: constructed wetlands; wastewater reuse; agriculture; sanitation; arid regions constructed wetlands; wastewater reuse; agriculture; sanitation; arid regions
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Torrens, A.; de la Varga, D.; Ndiaye, A.K.; Folch, M.; Coly, A. Innovative Multistage Constructed Wetland for Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Agriculture in Senegal. Water 2020, 12, 3139. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113139

AMA Style

Torrens A, de la Varga D, Ndiaye AK, Folch M, Coly A. Innovative Multistage Constructed Wetland for Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Agriculture in Senegal. Water. 2020; 12(11):3139. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113139

Chicago/Turabian Style

Torrens, Antonina; de la Varga, David; Ndiaye, Abdou K.; Folch, Montserrat; Coly, Adrien. 2020. "Innovative Multistage Constructed Wetland for Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Agriculture in Senegal" Water 12, no. 11: 3139. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113139

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop