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Article

Improvement of Phosphate Adsorption Kinetics onto Ferric Hydroxide by Size Reduction

1
Barcelona Research Center in Multiscale Science and Engineering (EEBE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Av. Eduard Maristany 16, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
2
Eurecat, Centre Tecnològic de Catalunya, Sustainability Area, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa, Spain
3
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical (EEBE), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Av. Eduard Maristany 16, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cidália Botelho
Water 2021, 13(11), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111558
Received: 10 May 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 29 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
Ball milling and ultra-sonication size reduction procedures were applied to granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) to obtain two micro-sized adsorbents. These two adsorbents and GFH were investigated to improve the removal of phosphates from water. The size reduction procedures, using the milling method, allowed a reduction of size from 0.5–2 mm to 0.1–2 µm and total disaggregation of the GFH structure. Using an ultra-sonication method yielded a final size of 1.9–50.3 µm with partial disaggregation. The Langmuir model correlated well with the isotherms obtained in batch equilibrium tests for the three adsorbents. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) for the milled adsorbent was lower than GFH, but using ultra-sonication was not different from GFH. The equilibrium adsorption of two wastewater samples with phosphate and other anions onto the GFH corresponded well with the expected removal, showing that potential interferences in the isotherms were not important. Batch kinetics tests indicated that the pseudo second-order model fitted the data. Long-term adsorption capacity in kinetics (qe) showed the same trend described for qmax. The application of milling and ultra-sonication methods showed 3.5- and 5.6-fold increases of the kinetic constant (k2) versus the GFH value, respectively. These results showed that ultra-sonication is a very good procedure to increase the adsorption rate of phosphate, maintaining qe and increasing k2. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorption technology; ultra-sonication; phosphate removal; granular ferric hydroxide; micro-sized adsorbents adsorption technology; ultra-sonication; phosphate removal; granular ferric hydroxide; micro-sized adsorbents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martí, V.; Jubany, I.; Ribas, D.; Benito, J.A.; Ferrer, B. Improvement of Phosphate Adsorption Kinetics onto Ferric Hydroxide by Size Reduction. Water 2021, 13, 1558. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111558

AMA Style

Martí V, Jubany I, Ribas D, Benito JA, Ferrer B. Improvement of Phosphate Adsorption Kinetics onto Ferric Hydroxide by Size Reduction. Water. 2021; 13(11):1558. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111558

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martí, Vicenç, Irene Jubany, David Ribas, José A. Benito, and Berta Ferrer. 2021. "Improvement of Phosphate Adsorption Kinetics onto Ferric Hydroxide by Size Reduction" Water 13, no. 11: 1558. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111558

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