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Article

Is the Volume-of-Fluid Method Coupled with a Sub-Grid Bubble Equation Efficient for Simulating Local and Continuum Aeration?

1
IHCantabria—Instituto de Hidráulica Ambiental, Calle Isabel Torres 15, 39011 Santander, Spain
2
Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Avenida do Brasil 101, 1700-066 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rita F. Carvalho and Corrado Gisonni
Water 2021, 13(11), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111535
Received: 10 April 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 29 May 2021
Air entrainment is common in free surface flows in large hydraulic structures (e.g., spillways, chutes, energy dissipation structures) and must be considered to assure an effective and safe operation. Due to the large size of the prototype structures, it is infeasible to model individual air bubbles. Therefore, using the OpenFOAM toolbox, an efficient simulation model for aerated flows is developed for engineering purposes. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations and the volume-of-fluid method are coupled with a sub-grid bubble population model that simulates entrainment and transport. A comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness, computational cost, and reliability is performed. Local and continuum bubble entrainment are evaluated in two distinct flows: an impinging jet and along a spillway chute. Aeration is induced, respectively, by a shear flow and by the thickening of the turbulent boundary layer. Moreover, a detailed sensitivity analysis of the model’s parameters is conducted. Calibration and validation are performed against experimental and prototype data. Among the analyzed entrainment formulations, the one depending exclusively on the turbulent kinetic energy is the only applicable to different flow types. Good accuracy is found, meeting engineering standards, and the additional computation cost is marginal. Results depend primarily on the volume-of-fluid method ability to reproduce the interface. Calibration is straightforward in self-aeration but more difficult for local aeration. View Full-Text
Keywords: local aeration; free-surface aeration; volume-of-fluid; sub-grid bubble equation; hydraulic structure local aeration; free-surface aeration; volume-of-fluid; sub-grid bubble equation; hydraulic structure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mendes, L.S.; Lara, J.L.; Viseu, M.T. Is the Volume-of-Fluid Method Coupled with a Sub-Grid Bubble Equation Efficient for Simulating Local and Continuum Aeration? Water 2021, 13, 1535. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111535

AMA Style

Mendes LS, Lara JL, Viseu MT. Is the Volume-of-Fluid Method Coupled with a Sub-Grid Bubble Equation Efficient for Simulating Local and Continuum Aeration? Water. 2021; 13(11):1535. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111535

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mendes, Lourenço S., Javier L. Lara, and Maria T. Viseu 2021. "Is the Volume-of-Fluid Method Coupled with a Sub-Grid Bubble Equation Efficient for Simulating Local and Continuum Aeration?" Water 13, no. 11: 1535. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111535

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