This study experimentally and numerically investigated the hydrodynamic characteristics of a 180° curved open channel over rough bed under the condition of constant downstream water depth. Three different sizes of bed particles (the small, middle and big cases based upon the grain size diameter D50
) were selected for flume tests. Three-dimensional instantaneous velocities obtained by the acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) were used to analyze hydrodynamic characteristics. Additionally, the Renormalization-Group (RNG) turbulence model was employed for numerical simulations. Experimental results show that rough bed strengthens turbulence and increases turbulent kinetic energy along curved channels. The power spectra of the longitudinal velocity fluctuation satisfy the classic Kolmogorov −5/3 law in the inertial subrange, and the existence of rough bed shortens the inertial subrange and causes the flow reach the viscous dissipation range in advance. The contributions of sweeps and ejections are more important than those of the outward and inward interactions over a rough bed for the middle case. Flow-3D was adopted to simulate flow patterns on two rough bed settings with same surface roughness (skin drag) but different bed shapes (form drag): one is bed covered with thick bottom sediment layers along the curved part of the flume (the big case) as the experimental condition, and the other one is uniform bed along the entire flume (called the big case_flat only for simulations). Numerical simulations reveal that the secondary flow is confined to the near-bed area and the intensity of secondary flow is improved for both rough bed cases, possibly causing more serious bed erosion along a curved channel. In addition, the thick bottom sediments (the big case), i.e., larger form drag, can enhance turbulence strength near bed regions, enlarge the transverse range of secondary flow, and delay the shifting of the core region of maximum longitudinal velocity towards the concave bank.
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