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Article

A Method for Estimating the Velocity at Which Anaerobic Metabolism Begins in Swimming Fish

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State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
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Key Laboratory of Ecological Impacts of Hydraulic-Projects and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystem of Ministry of Water Resources, Institute of Hydroecology, Ministry of Water Resources and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430079, China
3
Jiangxi Road and Port Engineering Co., Ltd., Nanchang 330200, China
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Anhui Provincial Group Limited for Yangtze-to-Huaihe Water Diversion, Hefei 230000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xin’an Yin, Xu’feng Mao, Jianguo Zhou and Zhengjian Yang
Water 2021, 13(10), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101430
Received: 19 March 2021 / Revised: 13 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 20 May 2021
Anaerobic metabolism begins before fish reach their critical swimming speed. Anaerobic metabolism affects the swimming ability of fish, which is not conducive to their upward tracking. The initiation of anaerobic metabolism therefore provides a better predictor of flow barriers than critical swimming speed. To estimate the anaerobic element of metabolism for swimming fish, the respiratory metabolism and swimming performance of adult crucian carp (Carassius auratus, mass = 260.10 ± 7.93, body length = 19.32 ± 0.24) were tested in a closed tank at 20 ± 1 °C. The swimming behavior and rate of oxygen consumption of these carp were recorded at various swimming speeds. Results indicate (1) The critical swimming speed of the crucian carp was 0.85 ± 0.032 m/s (4.40 ± 0.16 BL/s). (2) When a power function was fitted to the data, oxygen consumption, as a function of swimming speed, was determined to be AMR = 131.24 + 461.26Us1.27 (R2 = 0.948, p < 0.001) and the power value (1.27) of Us indicated high swimming efficiency. (3) Increased swimming speed led to increases in the tail beat frequency. (4) Swimming costs were calculated via rate of oxygen consumption and hydrodynamic modeling. Then, the drag coefficient of the crucian carp during swimming was calibrated (0.126–0.140), and the velocity at which anaerobic metabolism was initiated was estimated (0.52 m/s), via the new method described herein. This study adds to our understanding of the metabolic patterns of fish at different swimming speeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxygen consumption rate; drag coefficient; drag; anaerobic metabolism oxygen consumption rate; drag coefficient; drag; anaerobic metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

He, F.; Wang, X.; Li, Y.; Hou, Y.; Zou, Q.; Shen, D. A Method for Estimating the Velocity at Which Anaerobic Metabolism Begins in Swimming Fish. Water 2021, 13, 1430. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101430

AMA Style

He F, Wang X, Li Y, Hou Y, Zou Q, Shen D. A Method for Estimating the Velocity at Which Anaerobic Metabolism Begins in Swimming Fish. Water. 2021; 13(10):1430. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101430

Chicago/Turabian Style

He, Feifei, Xiaogang Wang, Yun Li, Yiqun Hou, Qiubao Zou, and Dengle Shen. 2021. "A Method for Estimating the Velocity at Which Anaerobic Metabolism Begins in Swimming Fish" Water 13, no. 10: 1430. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101430

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