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Article

Evaluation of Element Mobility in River Sediment Using Different Single Extraction Procedures and Assessment of Probabilistic Ecological Risk

1
Centre of Excellence in Environmental Chemistry and Engineering–ICTM, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, 11158 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Ruđer Bošković Institute, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12–16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
4
Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Zemun, Serbia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laura Bulgariu
Water 2021, 13(10), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101411
Received: 18 March 2021 / Revised: 4 May 2021 / Accepted: 12 May 2021 / Published: 18 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Water and Sediment Ⅱ)
In this manuscript, samples of Kupa River sediments were examined using three different extraction agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of single extraction procedures to investigate the bioavailability and mobility of major and trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) from river sediment. Two forms of studied elements were evaluated: mobile, the most toxic element form (extraction with 1 M CH3COONH4 and 0.01 M CaCl2) and potentially mobilized form (2 M HNO3 extraction). The estimation of the ecological risk, with the application of the probability distribution of RI (potential ecological risk index) values, is yielded with the help of the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Ammonium acetate is proved to be a better extraction agent than calcium chloride. A positive correlation between the content of all extracted elements with nitric acid and the total element content indicates that 2 M HNO3 efficiently extracts all studied elements. Results showed anthropogenic sources of cadmium and copper and high barium mobility. The MCS suggests that risk of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn was low; As and Cd posed a lower and median ecological risk in the studied areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kupa River (Croatia); ecological risk; element mobility; probabilistic ecological risk; Monte Carlo simulation Kupa River (Croatia); ecological risk; element mobility; probabilistic ecological risk; Monte Carlo simulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakan, S.; Frančišković-Bilinski, S.; Đorđević, D.; Popović, A.; Sakan, N.; Škrivanj, S.; Bilinski, H. Evaluation of Element Mobility in River Sediment Using Different Single Extraction Procedures and Assessment of Probabilistic Ecological Risk. Water 2021, 13, 1411. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101411

AMA Style

Sakan S, Frančišković-Bilinski S, Đorđević D, Popović A, Sakan N, Škrivanj S, Bilinski H. Evaluation of Element Mobility in River Sediment Using Different Single Extraction Procedures and Assessment of Probabilistic Ecological Risk. Water. 2021; 13(10):1411. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101411

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakan, Sanja, Stanislav Frančišković-Bilinski, Dragana Đorđević, Aleksandar Popović, Nenad Sakan, Sandra Škrivanj, and Halka Bilinski. 2021. "Evaluation of Element Mobility in River Sediment Using Different Single Extraction Procedures and Assessment of Probabilistic Ecological Risk" Water 13, no. 10: 1411. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101411

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