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Article

First Report on Cyanotoxin (MC-LR) Removal from Surface Water by Multi-Soil-Layering (MSL) Eco-Technology: Preliminary Results

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National Center for Studies and Research on Water and Energy, Cadi Ayyad University, P.O. Box: 511, 40000 Marrakech, Morocco
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Laboratory of Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, P.O. Box: 2390, 40000 Marrakech, Morocco
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CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, University Porto, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Environmental Sciences, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abasiofiok Mark Ibekwe
Water 2021, 13(10), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101403
Received: 3 April 2021 / Revised: 3 May 2021 / Accepted: 12 May 2021 / Published: 18 May 2021
Cyanobacteria blooms occur frequently in freshwaters around the world. Some can produce and release toxic compounds called cyanotoxins, which represent a danger to both the environment and human health. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic variant reported all over the world. Conventional water treatment methods are expensive and require specialized personnel and equipment. Recently, a multi-soil-layering (MSL) system, a natural and low-cost technology, has been introduced as an attractive cost-effective, and environmentally friendly technology that is likely to be an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment methods. This study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the efficiency of MSL eco-technology to remove MC-LR on a laboratory scale using local materials. To this end, an MSL pilot plant was designed to treat distilled water contaminated with MC-LR. The pilot was composed of an alternation of permeable layers (pozzolan) and soil mixture layers (local sandy soil, sawdust, charcoal, and metallic iron on a dry weight ratio of 70, 10, 10, and 10%, respectively) arranged in a brick-layer-like pattern. MSL pilot was continuously fed with synthetic water containing distilled water contaminated with increasing concentrations of MC-LR (0.18–10 µg/L) at a hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 200 L m−2 day−1. The early results showed MC-LR removal of above 99%. Based on these preliminary results, the multi-soil-layering eco-technology could be considered as a promising solution to treat water contaminated by MC-LR in order to produce quality water for irrigation or recreational activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-soil-layering eco-technology; cyanotoxins; microcystin-LR; water treatment multi-soil-layering eco-technology; cyanotoxins; microcystin-LR; water treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aba, R.P.; Mugani, R.; Hejjaj, A.; Brugerolle de Fraissinette, N.; Oudra, B.; Ouazzani, N.; Campos, A.; Vasconcelos, V.; Carvalho, P.N.; Mandi, L. First Report on Cyanotoxin (MC-LR) Removal from Surface Water by Multi-Soil-Layering (MSL) Eco-Technology: Preliminary Results. Water 2021, 13, 1403. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101403

AMA Style

Aba RP, Mugani R, Hejjaj A, Brugerolle de Fraissinette N, Oudra B, Ouazzani N, Campos A, Vasconcelos V, Carvalho PN, Mandi L. First Report on Cyanotoxin (MC-LR) Removal from Surface Water by Multi-Soil-Layering (MSL) Eco-Technology: Preliminary Results. Water. 2021; 13(10):1403. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101403

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aba, Roseline P., Richard Mugani, Abdessamad Hejjaj, Nelly Brugerolle de Fraissinette, Brahim Oudra, Naaila Ouazzani, Alexandre Campos, Vitor Vasconcelos, Pedro N. Carvalho, and Laila Mandi. 2021. "First Report on Cyanotoxin (MC-LR) Removal from Surface Water by Multi-Soil-Layering (MSL) Eco-Technology: Preliminary Results" Water 13, no. 10: 1403. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101403

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