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Article

Enhanced Removal of Contaminants of Emerging Concern through Hydraulic Adjustments in Soil Aquifer Treatment

1
Institute for Groundwater Management, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden, Germany
2
Biosphärenreservat Mittelelbe, 06813 Dessau-Roßlau, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(9), 2627; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092627
Received: 23 July 2020 / Revised: 8 September 2020 / Accepted: 12 September 2020 / Published: 20 September 2020
Water reclamation through the use of soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is a sustainable water management technique with high potential for application in many regions worldwide. However, the fate of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) during the infiltration of treated wastewater during SAT is still a matter of research. This study investigates the removal capacity of 27 CECs during SAT by means of infiltration experiments into a 6 m soil column. Additionally, the influence of the hydraulic operation of SAT systems on the removal of CECs is investigated by changing the wetting and drying cycle lengths. Sixteen out of 27 CECs are efficiently removed during SAT under various operational modes, e.g., bezafibrate, diclofenac and valsartan. For six substances (4-methylbenzotriazole, amidotrizoic acid, benzotriazole, candesartan, hydrochlorothiazide and sulfamethoxazole), removal increased with longer drying times. Removal of amidotrizoic acid and benzotriazole increased by 85% when the drying cycle was changed from 100 to 444 min. For candesartan and hydrochlorothiazide, removal improved by 35%, and for 4-methylbenzotriazole and sulfamethoxazole, by 57% and 39%, respectively. Thus, enhanced aeration of the vadose soil zone through prolonged drying times can be a suitable technique to increase the removal of CECs during SAT. View Full-Text
Keywords: contaminants of emerging concern; wastewater reuse; soil aquifer treatment; vadose zone; removal efficiency; hydraulic loading cycles; infiltration experiments contaminants of emerging concern; wastewater reuse; soil aquifer treatment; vadose zone; removal efficiency; hydraulic loading cycles; infiltration experiments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sallwey, J.; Jurado, A.; Barquero, F.; Fahl, J. Enhanced Removal of Contaminants of Emerging Concern through Hydraulic Adjustments in Soil Aquifer Treatment. Water 2020, 12, 2627. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092627

AMA Style

Sallwey J, Jurado A, Barquero F, Fahl J. Enhanced Removal of Contaminants of Emerging Concern through Hydraulic Adjustments in Soil Aquifer Treatment. Water. 2020; 12(9):2627. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092627

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sallwey, Jana; Jurado, Anna; Barquero, Felix; Fahl, Jens. 2020. "Enhanced Removal of Contaminants of Emerging Concern through Hydraulic Adjustments in Soil Aquifer Treatment" Water 12, no. 9: 2627. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092627

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