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Review

Review of Methods to Repair and Maintain Lithophilic Fish Spawning Habitat

1
U.S. Geological Survey Great Lakes Science Center, 1451 Green Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
2
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606, USA
3
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Lower Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office, 1101 Casey Road, Basom, NY 14103, USA
4
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, Forestry Building, 195 Marsteller Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
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Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant College Program, 195 Marsteller Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
6
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alpena Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office, 5437 West Jefferson Ave., Trenton, MI 48183, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Under contract with U.S.G.S.
Water 2020, 12(9), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092501
Received: 8 July 2020 / Revised: 20 August 2020 / Accepted: 24 August 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Human Activities and Climate Change on Freshwater Fish)
Rocky reefs provide important spawning and refuge habitats for lithophilic spawning fishes. However, many reefs have been lost or severely degraded through anthropogenic effects like dredging, channelization, or sedimentation. Constructed reefs have been used to mitigate these effects in some systems, but these reefs are also subject to degradation which may warrant custodial maintenance. Monitoring and maintenance of natural or constructed spawning reefs are not common practices; therefore, few methodologies have been created to test the effectiveness of such tools. We conducted a literature review to assess available information on maintenance of rocky spawning habitats used by lithophilic fishes. We identified 54 rocky spawning habitat maintenance projects, most of which aimed to improve fish spawning habitats through the addition of spawning substrate (n = 33) or cleaning of substrate (n = 23). In comparison to shallow riverine studies focused on salmonids, we found little information on deep-water reefs, marine reefs, or other fish species. We discuss the possible application of potential spawning habitat cleaning methods from other disciplines (e.g., treasure hunting; archeology) that may provide effective means of reef maintenance that can be used by restoration practitioners. View Full-Text
Keywords: reef; custodial maintenance; fish spawning; restoration; sediment removal; anthropogenic impacts reef; custodial maintenance; fish spawning; restoration; sediment removal; anthropogenic impacts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baetz, A.; Tucker, T.R.; DeBruyne, R.L.; Gatch, A.; Höök, T.; Fischer, J.L.; Roseman, E.F. Review of Methods to Repair and Maintain Lithophilic Fish Spawning Habitat. Water 2020, 12, 2501. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092501

AMA Style

Baetz A, Tucker TR, DeBruyne RL, Gatch A, Höök T, Fischer JL, Roseman EF. Review of Methods to Repair and Maintain Lithophilic Fish Spawning Habitat. Water. 2020; 12(9):2501. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092501

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baetz, Audrey, Taaja R. Tucker, Robin L. DeBruyne, Alex Gatch, Tomas Höök, Jason L. Fischer, and Edward F. Roseman 2020. "Review of Methods to Repair and Maintain Lithophilic Fish Spawning Habitat" Water 12, no. 9: 2501. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092501

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