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Article

Performance of a Ditch-Style Phosphorus Removal Structure for Treating Agricultural Drainage Water with Aluminum-Treated Steel Slag

1
Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2
USDA-ARS National Soil Erosion Laboratory, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
3
Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Crookston, MN 56716, USA
4
USDA-ARS Soil Drainage Research Unit, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
5
Translational Data Analytics Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(8), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082149
Received: 28 May 2020 / Revised: 20 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 30 July 2020
Several structural, treatment, and management approaches exist to minimize phosphorus (P) transport from agricultural landscapes (e.g., cover cropping and conservation tillage). However, many of these practices are designed to minimize particulate P transport and are not as effective in controlling dissolved P (DP) losses. Phosphorus removal structures employ a P sorption material (PSM) to trap DP from flowing water. These structures have been successful in treating surface runoff by utilizing aluminum (Al)-treated steel slag, but subsurface tile drainage has never been tested with this material. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance and economics of a ditch-style P removal structure using Al-treated steel slag for treating agricultural subsurface drainage discharge. The structure treated subsurface drainage water from a 4.5 ha agricultural field with elevated soil test P levels. Overall, the structure removed approximately 27% and 50% of all DP and total P (TP) entering the structure, respectively (i.e., 2.4 and 9.4 kg DP and TP removal). After an initial period of strong DP removal, the discrete DP removal became highly variable. Flow-through analysis of slag samples showed that the slag used to construct the structure was coarser and less sorptive compared to the slag samples collected prior to construction that were used to design and size the structure. Results of this study highlight the importance of correctly designing the P removal structures using representative PSMs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ohio; case study; subsurface drainage; dissolved phosphorus; phosphorus transport; phosphorus sorption materials; tile drainage; water quality; algal bloom; eutrophication Ohio; case study; subsurface drainage; dissolved phosphorus; phosphorus transport; phosphorus sorption materials; tile drainage; water quality; algal bloom; eutrophication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shedekar, V.S.; Penn, C.J.; Pease, L.; King, K.W.; Kalcic, M.M.; Livingston, S.J. Performance of a Ditch-Style Phosphorus Removal Structure for Treating Agricultural Drainage Water with Aluminum-Treated Steel Slag. Water 2020, 12, 2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082149

AMA Style

Shedekar VS, Penn CJ, Pease L, King KW, Kalcic MM, Livingston SJ. Performance of a Ditch-Style Phosphorus Removal Structure for Treating Agricultural Drainage Water with Aluminum-Treated Steel Slag. Water. 2020; 12(8):2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082149

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shedekar, Vinayak S., Chad J. Penn, Lindsay Pease, Kevin W. King, Margaret M. Kalcic, and Stan J. Livingston. 2020. "Performance of a Ditch-Style Phosphorus Removal Structure for Treating Agricultural Drainage Water with Aluminum-Treated Steel Slag" Water 12, no. 8: 2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082149

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