# The Negative Impact of Blockage on Storm Water Drainage Network

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Dimensional Analysis

_{B}, L

_{B}, A

_{B})

h_{g}: water depth at upstream grate; | Q: the total inlet discharge; |

g1, g3, g5: refers to the grate’s number; | £: efficiency of discharge = (q/Q); |

n_{ag}: net area of grate; | L: the length of the flume; |

a_{b}: blockage area of grate; | L_{g}: the length from the beginning of flume to the grate; |

A_{B}: relative blockage area (a_{b} /n_{ag}); | L_{o}: relative grate length = (L_{g}/L); |

h_{U}: water depth at flume upstream; | h_{b}: height of blockage; |

H_{g}: relative water height = h_{g}/h_{U;} | r_{p}: radius of main pipe; |

W_{g}: the water spread beside every grate; | H_{B}: relative blockage height within pipe (h_{b} /2rp); |

W: the flume width; | L_{b}: length of blockage; |

W_{o}: relative water spread width = (Wg/W); | L_{p}: length of main pipe; |

q: intercepted discharge; | L_{B}: relative blockage length within pipe (L_{b} /L_{p}). |

#### 2.2. Experimental Work

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. First Group: Blockage in Storm Main Pipe

#### 3.1.1. End Pipe Blockage

#### 3.1.2. Effect of Blockage along the Pipe Length

#### 3.2. Second Group: Surface Blockage on Grate

#### 3.3. Third Group: Combined Blockage (Pipe and Grate Blockage)

#### 3.4. Summary of Results

- Relative blockage height (RBH) = 50%
- RBH = 50%, relative blockage length (RBL) = 33%
- RBH = 50%, RBL = 66%
- RBH = 50%, RBL = 100%
- RBH = 50%, RBL = 100%, relative blockage of grate area (RBGA) = 12.5%
- RBH = 50%, RBL = 100%, RBGA = 25%
- RBH = 50%, RBL = 100%, RBGA = 37.5%
- RBH = 50%, RBL = 100%, RBGA = 50%

#### 3.5. Prediction of Efficiency

- L
_{B}= relative blockage length (decimal) - H
_{B}= relative blockage height (decimal) - A
_{B}= relative blockage area (decimal) - Q = flume discharge (L/s)
- $\pounds $ = system discharge efficiency (decimal)

## 4. Conclusions

_{B}), relative blockage pipe length (L

_{B}), relative blockage area (A

_{B}), and system discharge.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Different ratios of blockage. (

**A**) blockage through grate cover (

**B**) blockage through storm pipes https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/blocked-drain.html (2019).

**Figure 8.**Different sizes of grate blockage. (

**A**) surface blockage 12.50%, (

**B**) surface blockage 25%, (

**C**) surface blockage 37.50%, (

**D**) surface blockage 50%.

**Figure 11.**Relationship between Hg and LO for different relative blockage heights at Q = 1.20 L/sec.

**Figure 12.**Relationship between Hg and LO for different relative blockage heights at Q = 3.30 L/sec.

**Figure 13.**Relationship between WO and LO for different relative blockage heights at Q = 1.00 L/sec.

**Figure 14.**Relationship between WO and LO for different relative blockage heights at Q = 1.20 L/sec.

**Figure 24.**Relationship between £ and Q for different ratios of blockage height at surface blockage 12.5%.

**Figure 25.**Relationship between £ and Q for different ratios of blockage height at surface blockage 25%.

**Figure 26.**Relationship between £ and Q for different ratios of blockage height at surface blockage 37.5%.

**Figure 27.**Relationship between £ and Q for different ratios of blockage height at surface blockage 50%.

**Figure 28.**Relationship between Hg and LO for different ratios of grate blockage with pipe blockage 25% at Q = 6.00 L/sec.

**Figure 29.**Relationship between Hg and LO for different ratios of grate blockage with pipe blockage 50% at Q = 6.00 L/sec.

H_{B} (%) | £ For Q = 6.00 L/s and 1.00 L/s, Respectively | (£) AEOD | Efficiency Reduction % |
---|---|---|---|

15% | 34.9%–76.6% | 59% | 0.93% |

30% | 34.2%–76.5% | 58% | 0.93% |

50% | 27.9%–72.8% | 53% | 6.53% |

70% | 15.44%–71.7% | 37% | 16.77% |

90% | 4.7%–29.8% | 12% | 46.49% |

H_{B} (%) | L_{B} (%) | £ For Q = 6.00 L/s and 1.00 L/s, Respectively | (£) AEOD | Efficiency Reduction % |
---|---|---|---|---|

25% | 33% | 35.38%–77.56% | 71% | 0.89% |

25% | 67% | 34.96%–76% | 56% | 3.52% |

25% | 100% | 25.16%–75.56 | 49% | 10.02% |

50% | 33% | 34.96%–75.11% | 58% | 2.49% |

50% | 67% | 33.78%–71.78% | 53% | 6.60% |

50% | 100% | 20.96%–71.56% | 44% | 15.11% |

H_{B} (%) | L_{B} (%) | Relative Blockage Area (A_{B}) | £ For Q = 6.00 L/s and 1.00 L/s, Respectively | (£) AEOD | Efficiency Reduction % |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 12.5% | 25% to 66.22% | 57.67% | 2.27% |

0 | 0 | 25% | 34.09% to 63.7% | 55.16% | 4.78% |

0 | 0 | 37.5% | 31.56% to 60.36% | 50.24% | 9.70% |

0 | 0 | 50% | 24% to 54.75% | 42.06% | 17.88% |

25% | 100% | 12.5% | 24.47% to 63.86% | 48.14% | 11.80% |

25% | 100% | 25% | 22.87% to 59.87% | 45.96% | 13.98% |

25% | 100% | 37.5% | 20.13% to 56.78% | 42.15% | 17.79% |

25% | 100% | 50% | 20.1% to 51.25% | 38.29% | 21.65% |

50% | 100% | 12.5% | 20.49% 64.56% | 42.19% | 17.75% |

50% | 100% | 25% | 19.96% to 61.67% | 40.66% | 19.28% |

50% | 100% | 37.5% | 19.11% to 59.22% | 38.99% | 20.95% |

50% | 100% | 50% | 18.36% to 50% | 35.34% | 24.60% |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Fathy, I.; Abdel-Aal, G.M.; Fahmy, M.R.; Fathy, A.; Zeleňáková, M.
The Negative Impact of Blockage on Storm Water Drainage Network. *Water* **2020**, *12*, 1974.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071974

**AMA Style**

Fathy I, Abdel-Aal GM, Fahmy MR, Fathy A, Zeleňáková M.
The Negative Impact of Blockage on Storm Water Drainage Network. *Water*. 2020; 12(7):1974.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071974

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Fathy, Ismail, Gamal M. Abdel-Aal, Maha Rashad Fahmy, Amira Fathy, and Martina Zeleňáková.
2020. "The Negative Impact of Blockage on Storm Water Drainage Network" *Water* 12, no. 7: 1974.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071974